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Can Free Provision Reduce Demand for Public Services? Evidence from Kenyan Education

ABOLITION OF FEES ABOLITION OF USER FEES ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ACADEMIC YEARS ACCESS TO PRIMARY SCHOOLING ADMISSIONS CRITERIA AGGREGATE ENROLLMENT AVERAGE NUMBER OF CHILDREN AVERAGE TEACHER SALARY BETTER SCHOOLS CAPACITY BUILDING CHILDREN CIVIL SERVICE CIVIL SERVICE TEACHERS CLASS SIZE CLASS SIZE EFFECT CLASS SIZES CLASS-SIZE CLASSROOM COGNITIVE ACHIEVEMENT COGNITIVE SKILLS COMPLETION COST OF EDUCATION DEMAND FOR EDUCATION DISTRICT EDUCATION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION EDUCATED CHILDREN EDUCATED STUDENTS EDUCATION EDUCATION EXPENDITURE EDUCATION LEVEL EDUCATION QUALITY EDUCATION SERVICES EDUCATION SYSTEM EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURE ELEMENTARY EDUCATION ENROLLMENT FIGURES ENROLLMENT GROWTH ENROLLMENT INCREASES ENROLLMENT RATE EQUAL ACCESS ETHNIC DIVERSITY EXAM EXAM PERFORMANCE EXAM SCORE EXAMINATION EXPENDITURES FEE ABOLITION FEE REMOVAL FEES FREE PRIMARY EDUCATION FREE SCHOOLS GER GOVERNMENT GRANTS GOVERNMENT PRIMARY SCHOOLS GROSS ENROLLMENT GROSS ENROLLMENT RATES GROUPS HEAD TEACHER HIGH SCHOOL HIGHER ENROLLMENT HIGHER TEST SCORES HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS HUMAN RESOURCES ITS KNOWLEDGE LEAVING EXAM SCORES LEVEL OF EDUCATION LITERACY LITERATURE MINIMUM SCHOOLING MINISTRY OF EDUCATION NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL NER NET ENROLLMENT NET ENROLLMENT RATE NEW ENTRANTS NUMBER OF PUPILS NUMERACY OPEN ACCESS PAPERS PARENTAL EDUCATION PARTICIPATION PARTNERSHIPS PRIMARY EDUCATION PRIMARY EDUCATION POLICY PRIMARY EDUCATION REFORM PRIMARY ENROLLMENT PRIMARY SCHOOL PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT PRIMARY SCHOOL FEES PRIMARY SCHOOLING PRIMARY-SCHOOL PRIVATE EDUCATION PRIVATE PRIMARY SCHOOLS PRIVATE SCHOOL PRIVATE SCHOOLING PRIVATE SCHOOLS PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS PUBLIC EXPENDITURE PUBLIC PRIMARY EDUCATION PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS PUBLIC SCHOOL PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPILS PUBLIC SCHOOLING PUBLIC SCHOOLS PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS PUPIL FUNDING PUPIL RATIOS PUPIL TEACHER RATIOS PUPIL-TEACHER RATIOS QUALITY EDUCATION QUALITY OF EDUCATION QUALITY SCHOOLING RATE OF ENROLLMENT REASONING RESEARCH RESEARCH FUNDING RETENTION RATES SCHOOL AGE SCHOOL ATTENDANCE SCHOOL BOARDS SCHOOL ENTRY SCHOOL FINANCE SCHOOL FUNDING SCHOOL GOVERNANCE SCHOOL LEVEL SCHOOL MANAGEMENT SCHOOL MANAGEMENT COMMITTEES SCHOOL OFFICIALS SCHOOL PARTICIPATION SCHOOL QUALITY SCHOOL RETENTION SCHOOL SYSTEM SCHOOL-AGE SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN SCIENCE SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY ENROLLMENT SECONDARY SCHOOL SECONDARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLING SKILLS STANDARDIZED TESTS STATE SCHOOLS STATISTICS STUDENT STUDENTS STUDIES STUDY TEACHER EMPLOYMENT TEACHER SALARIES TEACHERS TEACHING TEACHING STAFF TERTIARY EDUCATION TESTING UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION UNIVERSITY VALUES WOMEN user fees
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Kenya
2014-02-05T13:42:38Z | 2014-02-05T13:42:38Z | 2013-11

In 2003 Kenya abolished user fees in all government primary schools. Analysis of household survey data shows this policy contributed to a shift in demand away from free schools, where net enrollment stagnated after 2003, toward fee-charging private schools, where both enrollment and fee levels grew rapidly after 2003. These shifts had mixed distributional consequences. Enrollment by poorer households increased, but segregation between socio-economic groups also increased. The shift in demand toward private schooling was driven by more affluent households who (i) paid higher ex ante fees and thus experienced a larger reduction in school funding, and (ii) appear to have exited public schools partially in reaction to increased enrollment by poorer children.

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