For thousands of years, the people of Middle East and North Africa (MENA) have coped with the challenges of climate variability by adapting their survival strategies to changes in rainfall and temperature. Temperatures are expected to increase, and in most places less rainfall.is expected. Water availability is expected to decrease, and with a growing population, the already water-scarce regions are not having sufficient supplies to irrigate crops, support industry, or provide drinking water. Low quality urban drainage systems have contributed to flooding in some Arab cities and the threat of more flooding is impetus to finally rebuild infrastructure. In rural areas, climate change is forcing communities to rethink gender roles that perpetuate gender inequality. Finally, adaptation governance needs to be improved and implemented throughout the region. Anticipation of climate change is stimulus for improving interventions, galvanizing support, and improving governance.
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