The discovery of large natural resource reserves in Mozambique has raised expectations of increased economic growth, improved public services and poverty reduction. However, the majority of the population has benefited little from growth in recent years, and may be skeptical that the potential for increased government revenues will translate into improved services. The development potential of future natural resource revenues will partially depend on stronger PFM systems, as well as political commitment to broad based social and economic development. A gap between political rhetoric and improvements in the everyday lives of the population may fuel potential for social unrest. Similarly, changing development partner circumstances (both funding constraints and changing modalities) and perceptions of Mozambique s development trajectory may lead to a drop in the levels of assistance, in advance of actual increases in revenue (it is still some years before natural resources will reach market). The Government needs to respond to both popular expectations and a changing partner environment. This creates a window of opportunity to increase government focus on the effective management of public resources and improved service delivery.