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Open Skies over the Middle East

AIR AIR CARGO AIR LIBERALIZATION AIR PASSENGER AIR PASSENGERS AIR SERVICE AIR SERVICE AGREEMENT AIR SERVICE AGREEMENTS AIR SERVICES AIR TRAFFIC AIR TRAFFIC DATA AIR TRAFFIC GROWTH AIR TRANSPORT AIR TRANSPORT POLICY AIR TRANSPORT SECTOR AIR TRANSPORTATION AIR TRAVEL AIRFARES AIRLINE AIRLINES AIRPORT AIRPORTS ALTERNATIVE MODES ASA AVIATION AGREEMENTS AVIATION INDUSTRY AVIATION MARKET AVIATION POLICY CARRIERS CHARTER FLIGHTS CITY TRAFFIC CIVIL AVIATION CLIMATE CHANGE CONTROL MEASURES COST OF TRAVEL DEMAND FOR TRAVEL DEMOCRACIES DEMOCRACY DIRECT FLIGHTS DIRECT ROUTES DOMESTIC AIR TRANSPORT ECHO EROSION FARES FLIGHT FLIGHT INFORMATION FRAMEWORK FREIGHT FREIGHT TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHIC AREA INCOME INTEGRATION OF TRANSPORTATION INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT INTERNATIONAL AIR TRAVEL INTERNATIONAL AIRLINE INTERNATIONAL AVIATION INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION INTERNATIONAL FLIGHTS INTERNATIONAL TRADE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL INVESTIGATION LANDING MOBILITY MODES OF TRANSPORT MULTINATIONAL PASSENGER NUMBERS PASSENGER TRAFFIC PASSENGER TRANSPORT PASSENGER TRAVEL PASSENGER TRAVELLING PASSENGERS PLANES POPULATION DENSITY RANGE REGIONAL HUB ROUGH ROUTE ROUTES SHARING SPRING TEMPERATURE TRAFFIC DATA TRAFFIC FLOWS TRAFFIC GROWTH TRAFFIC LEVELS TRANSPORT COSTS TRANSPORT MARKETS TRANSPORT POLICY TRANSPORT SERVICES TRANSPORTATION MARKETS TRANSPORTATION SERVICES TRAVEL COSTS TRAVEL DEMAND TRAVEL PATTERNS TRIP TRUE URBAN AREAS VOLUME OF AIR
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Middle East and North Africa | Middle East | Turkey
2014-06-30T16:45:46Z | 2014-06-30T16:45:46Z | 2014-06

The dynamism of air traffic markets in the Middle East obscures the persistence of restrictions on international competition. But how important are such restrictions for passenger traffic? This paper uses detailed data on worldwide passenger aviation to estimate the effect of air transport policy on international air traffic. The policy variable is a quantitative measure of the commitments under international agreements. The paper analyzes, for the first time, not only bilateral agreements, but also plurilateral agreements such as the one between Arab states. The analysis finds that more liberal policy is associated with greater passenger traffic between countries. Higher traffic levels appear to be driven primarily by larger numbers of city pairs being served, rather than by more passengers traveling along given routes. To demonstrate the quantitative implication of the estimates, two liberalization scenarios in the Middle East are evaluated. Deepening the plurilateral agreement among Arab states would lead to a 30 percent increase in intraregional passenger traffic. Widening the agreement to include Turkey would generate significantly larger gains because current policy vis-à-vis Turkey is much more restrictive.

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