A Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) is a World Bank analytical tool used to integrate environmental issues into development assistance strategies, programs, and projects. To that end, the CEA synthesizes environmental issues, highlights the environmental and economic implications of development policies, and evaluates the country's environmental management capacity. It is composed of three analytical building blocks: the identification of environment-development priority issues, a general analysis of environmental institutions and governance, and detailed analyses of the priority issues or sectors identified in the first analytical building block. It then examines the findings of this diagnostic process in light of the engagement of the Bank and other development partners (DPs) in the country's environment and natural resources (ENR) sectors. At this stage, potential Bank ENR interventions can be identified. This CEA for Uganda adheres to the CEA analytical framework so described. Section I begins by setting the general economic and environment context in Uganda. It then looks more closely at the economic value of Uganda's natural resources, in terms of both stock (asset) values, and flow (income) values. Section two is dedicated to an analysis of environmental management institutions and environmental governance. Environmental management in Uganda is decentralized, consequently much of the analysis focuses on the functionality of local institutions. Section three is composed of the three focus natural resource sectors: forestry, wetlands, and fisheries. Basic data and information for each of the sectors were obtained from the respective responsible ministries and agencies. In the case of forestry and wetlands, recent and ongoing work provided additional insights into management issues. Finally, section four is about Uganda moving forward to improve ENR governance. It summarizes the challenges and constraints to environmental management and governance that were identified in section three, and proposes actions to start improving governance.