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Working Paper

Democratic Republic of the Congo : Background Case Study

ABUSES AID FLOWS AIDS EPIDEMIC ALLIANCES ARMED FORCES ARMIES ARMS ARMY BASIC BATTLES BRIBES BUSINESSMEN CHILD SOLDIERS CITIZENS CIVIL SERVANTS CIVIL SOCIETY CIVIL WAR CIVILIAN POPULATION COLD WAR COLLAPSE COLLUSION COMBAT COMBATANTS COMMAND AND CONTROL COMMUNITIES COMMUNITIES OF ORIGIN CONDITIONALITY CONFIDENCE CONFLICT CONFLICT RESOLUTION CONFLICTS CORRUPT CORRUPTION COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS COUNTERPARTS CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY CRIMINAL CRISES DEATHS DEBT DEFENSE DEMOBILIZATION DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES DEVELOPMENT PLANS DIPLOMACY DISARMAMENT DISCRIMINATION DISENGAGEMENT DISPLACEMENT CAMPS DISPUTES ELECTIONS EMPLOYMENT CREATION EQUIPMENT ETHNIC GROUP EXCESS MORTALITY EXPLOITATION FIGHTING FOREIGN EXCHANGE FOREIGN POLICY FOREIGN RELATIONS FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS GENOCIDE GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS GRAVE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT HEALTH SECTOR HEALTH SYSTEM HOST COUNTRY HUMAN RIGHTS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS HUMAN SECURITY HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTIONS IMF IMMIGRATION INDIGENOUS GROUPS INITIATIVE INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS INTERNATIONAL LEVEL INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS INTERNATIONAL SECURITY INVASIONS INVESTIGATION INVESTIGATIONS JUDICIAL SYSTEM JUDICIARY JUSTICE LAND TENURE LEGAL FRAMEWORK LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT MALARIA MASSACRES MEDIA MEETING MEMBER STATES MILITARY INTERVENTION MILITARY OFFICERS MILITARY OPERATIONS MILITIA MILITIA MOVEMENTS MILITIAS MINISTER MINISTERS MORTALITY RATE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NATIONAL GOVERNMENT NATIONAL LEVELS NATIONAL PLANS NATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE NATURAL RESOURCES NEGOTIATION NEGOTIATIONS NETWORKS NUMBER OF PEOPLE OBSERVERS OLD MEN PATRONAGE PEACE PEACE AGREEMENTS PEACE BUILDING PEACE PROCESS PEACEBUILDING PEACEKEEPERS PEACEKEEPING PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS PEACEMAKING PERSONAL GAIN POLICE POLICE FORCE POLICE OFFICER POLICE OFFICERS POLITICAL LEADERSHIP POLITICAL POWER POLITICAL PROCESS PRESS RELEASE PREVENTIVE ACTION PRIMARY HEALTH CARE PROGRESS PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY RADAR RAPE REBEL REBELS RECONCILIATION RECONSTRUCTION REFUGEE REFUGEE MOVEMENTS REGIONAL CONFLICT REHABILITATION ROADS RULE OF LAW RULING PARTY RURAL AREAS SECURITY FORCES SENSITIVE ISSUES SERVICE DELIVERY SEXUAL VIOLENCE SOLDIERS SOVEREIGN STATES SOVEREIGNTY SPILLOVER STRATEGIC PRIORITIES SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TECHNICAL ASPECTS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TOLERANCE TREATY UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL URBAN AREAS VICTIMS VIOLENCE VIOLENT CONFLICT WAR WAR CRIMES WARFARE WARS WARTIME WEAPONS WEBSITE WORLD DEVELOPMENT ZERO TOLERANCE
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Congo, Democratic Republic of
2017-06-27T15:51:48Z | 2017-06-27T15:51:48Z | 2011-03-02

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been described by one senior African diplomat at the United Nations as a 'state in the making; it is not yet a state.' Further, this 'state in the making' also is a state that, with few exceptions, has been in decline since the early 1970s. The colonial era, from 1885 until 1958, was a period of nearly uninterrupted state construction; the hegemony of the Belgian colonial apparatus steadily deepened. In its final two years, the colonial edifice progressively lost control over civil society to a tumultuous and fragmented nationalist movement, which was unable to capture intact the colonial infrastructure. The result was five years of turbulent state deflation, generally known as the 'Congo crisis.' The Mobutu coup of 1965 inaugurated a new cycle, with eight years in which a rising tide of state ascendancy seemed to dominate the political process. After 1974 currents of decline again began to flow strongly, progressively eroding the superstructure of hegemony. The actual purpose of the Zairian government under Mobutu was not to fulfill basic state functions; rather, the government existed as a structure for individual enrichment and patronage. Officials at the highest levels stole large amounts of money, usually from mineral or customs revenues, sometimes through extremely straightforward strategies, such as literally pocketing gem diamonds and having them sold for personal gain in Antwerp or elsewhere.

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