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The Heterogeneous Effects of HIV Testing

ABSENTEEISM ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME ADOLESCENTS AGED AIDS EPIDEMIC BEHAVIOR CHANGE BIOLOGICAL OUTCOMES BLOOD SAMPLES BURNS CASUAL PARTNERS CHLAMYDIA CLEANLINESS CLINICS CONDOM CONDOM PROMOTION CONDOM USE CONDOMS CONFERENCE ON POPULATION COUNSELING INTERVENTION DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT POLICY DIAGNOSTICS EPIDEMIOLOGY FAMILY PLANNING FEMALE FEMALES FERTILITY GENDER GENDER DIFFERENCES GENDER GAP GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT GLOBAL HIV/AIDS GONORRHEA HEALTH INFORMATION HERPES HERPES SIMPLEX HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS HIV HIV DATA HIV INFECTION HIV INFECTIONS HIV POSITIVE HIV PREVALENCE HIV PREVENTION HIV TEST HIV TESTING HIV TRANSMISSION HIV/AIDS HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS HYGIENE IMMUNE DEFICIENCY IMMUNODEFICIENCY IMPACT OF HIV INCIDENCE OF HIV INFECTIOUS DISEASES INFORMED CONSENT INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY JOURNAL OF MEDICINE LIFE EXPECTANCIES LIFE EXPECTANCY MARRIED MEN MEDICINE MINISTRY OF HEALTH MORBIDITY MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY MORTALITY RATES MOTHER MOTHER-TO-CHILD MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION NURSES ORAL SEX OUTPATIENT CLINICS POINT-OF-CARE POLICY DISCUSSIONS POLICY RESEARCH POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER POPULATION ASSOCIATION PRACTITIONERS PREVALENCE PREVALENCE RATE PREVALENCE RATES PREVENTION STRATEGIES PRIMARY SCHOOL PROGRESS PUBLIC HEALTH REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH RESPECT RISK BEHAVIOR RISK FACTORS RISK OF TRANSMISSION RISK REDUCTION RISKY BEHAVIOR RISKY BEHAVIORS RISKY SEX RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIOR RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIORS ROLE MODELS RURAL AREAS SAFER SEX SECONDARY SCHOOL SEX SEX PRACTICES SEXUAL ACTIVITY SEXUAL PARTNERS SEXUAL PRACTICES SEXUAL RISK SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIOR SEXUAL TRANSMISSION SEXUALLY ACTIVE SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS SOCIAL SCIENCE STIS SUBSISTENCE FARMING SYPHILIS TEENAGERS THERAPY TRANSMISSION OF DISEASE TREATMENT TROPICAL MEDICINE UNAIDS UNINFECTED PARTNER UNPROTECTED SEX UNSAFE SEX VIRUS VOLUNTARY COUNSELING WHOLE BLOOD SAMPLES YOUNG ADULTS YOUNG PEOPLE YOUNG WOMEN
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Malawi
2014-04-10T20:32:56Z | 2014-04-10T20:32:56Z | 2014-03

An extensive multi-disciplinary literature examines the effects of learning one's HIV status on subsequent risky sexual behaviors. However, many of these studies rely on non-experimental designs; use self-reported outcome measures, or both. This study investigates the effects of a randomly assigned home based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) intervention on risky sexual behaviors and schooling investments among school-age females in Malawi. The study finds no overall effects on HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-2), or achievement test scores at follow-up. However, among the small group of individuals who tested positive for HIV, a large increase in the probability of contracting HSV-2 is found, with this effect stronger among those surprised by their test results. Similarly, those surprised by HIV-negative test results see a significant improvement in achievement test scores, consistent with increased returns to investments in human capital. The finding of increased HSV-2 prevalence among HIV-positive individuals suggests that the conventional wisdom that those who learn they are HIV-positive will adopt safer sexual practices should be treated with caution.

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