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Rewarding Safer Sex : Conditional Cash Transfers for HIV/STI Prevention

ABSTINENCE ADOLESCENT ADOLESCENT FEMALES AGED AIDS EPIDEMIC AIDS PREVENTION ANAL SEX BEHAVIOR CHANGE BIOLOGICAL MARKERS BLOOD SAMPLES CHEMOTHERAPY CHLAMYDIA CLINICS COMMERCIAL SEX CONDOM CONDOM USE CONDOMS CONSISTENT CONDOM USE COUNSELLING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT POLICY DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY DIAGNOSIS DISEASE PREVENTION ECONOMIC STATUS EPIDEMIC FEMALE FEMALES FEWER PEOPLE FORMAL EDUCATION GENDER GENITAL SECRETIONS GONORRHEA GONORRHOEA HEALTH EDUCATION HEALTH FACILITIES HEALTH RISKS HERPES HERPES SIMPLEX HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS HIV HIV INFECTION HIV POSITIVE HIV PREVENTION HIV TESTING HIV/AIDS HOUSEHOLD INCOME HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INFECTION PREVENTION INTERVENTION MALE SEX MARITAL SEX MARITAL STATUS MASS COMMUNICATION MEDICAL RESEARCH MEDICAL TREATMENT MINISTRY OF HEALTH MULTIPLE PARTNERS NEGATIVE EFFECTS NEW INFECTIONS POLICY DISCUSSIONS POLICY RESEARCH POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU PREVALENCE PREVALENCE OF CHLAMYDIA PREVALENCE OF SYPHILIS PREVENTION INTERVENTIONS PREVENTION STRATEGIES PROGRESS PROSTITUTION PSYCHOLOGISTS PUBLIC HEALTH PUBLIC SERVICES RESEARCH COMMUNITIES RESPECT RISK BEHAVIORS RISK REDUCTION RISKY BEHAVIOR RISKY SEX RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIOR RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIORS RURAL COMMUNITIES SAFE SEX SAFER SEX SCHOOL ATTENDANCE SEX SEX WITH MEN SEX WORKERS SEXUAL ACTIVITY SEXUAL BEHAVIORS SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR SEXUAL CONTACT SEXUAL ENCOUNTERS SEXUAL INTERCOURSE SEXUAL PARTNER SEXUAL PARTNERS SEXUAL PARTNERSHIP SEXUAL PARTNERSHIPS SEXUAL PRACTICES SEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS SEXUALITY SEXUALLY ACTIVE SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTION SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS SM SOCIAL NORMS SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS SPOUSE SPOUSES STIS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SYMPTOMS SYPHILIS TREATMENT TRICHOMONAS UNPROTECTED SEX USE OF CONDOMS VIRUS VULNERABILITY YOUNG GIRLS YOUNG PEOPLE YOUTH YOUTHS
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World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Africa | Tanzania
2014-12-03T16:05:17Z | 2014-12-03T16:05:17Z | 2014-11

Incentive-based policies have been shown to be powerful in many areas of behavior, but have rarely been tested in the sexual domain. The Rewarding Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention and Control in Tanzania (RESPECT) study is a randomized controlled trial testing the hypothesis that a system of rapid feedback and positive reinforcement that uses cash as the primary incentive can be used to reduce risky sexual activity among young people, male and female, who are at high risk of HIV infection. The study enrolled 2,399 participants in 10 villages in rural southwest Tanzania. The intervention arm received conditional cash transfers that depended on negative results of periodic screenings for sexually transmitted infections, an objectively measured marker for risky sexual behavior. The intervention arm was further divided into two subgroups, one receiving a high value payment of up to $60 over the course of the study ($20 payments every four months) and the other receiving a lower value payment of up to $30 ($10 payments every four months). At the end of the one year of intervention, the results showed a significant reduction in sexually transmitted infections in the group that was eligible for the $20 payments every four months, but no such reduction was found for the group receiving the $10 payments. The effects were stronger among the lower socioeconomic and higher risks groups. The results of a post-intervention follow-up survey conducted one year after discontinuing the intervention indicate a sustained effect among males, but not among females.

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