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Ecosystems : Burden or Bounty?

AGRICULTURAL EXPANSION AGRICULTURAL FRONTIER AGRICULTURAL LAND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ALTERNATIVE USES AMOUNT OF LAND ANIMAL ANIMAL ECOLOGY ANIMAL POPULATION ANIMALS ARTISANAL MINING AVERAGE COSTS BEACH BEACHES BENCHMARK BIODIVERSITY BIOECONOMIC ANALYSIS BIOECONOMIC MODEL BIOECONOMIC MODELS BIOMASS BUFFER ZONES CARRYING CAPACITY CLIMATE CHANGE COMMUNITY INCENTIVES CONSERVATION CONSERVATION AREA CONSERVATION BIOLOGY CONSERVATION POLICY CONSERVATION SCIENCE CROP DAMAGE CROP PRODUCTION CULTIVATED LAND DECISION MAKING DETERMINANTS DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT POLICY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS DOMESTIC CATTLE DOMESTIC TOURISM DOMINANT SPECIES ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS ECONOMIC SECTORS ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE ECOSYSTEM ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS ECOSYSTEMS ELEPHANTS EMPIRICAL STUDIES ENCROACHMENT ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE EQUILIBRIUM EVOLUTION EXPECTED UTILITY FISH FOOD CHAIN FORAGE FOREST FOREST HABITAT FUNCTIONAL FORMS FUTURE RESEARCH GAZELLES GDP GRASSLANDS GROWTH RATE HABITAT HABITAT FRAGMENTATION HABITAT LOSS HARVEST RATES HARVESTERS HIGH DENSITY HUMAN IMPACTS HUNTERS HUNTING ILLEGAL HUNTING IMPACT OF TOURISM INDIRECT UTILITY INDIRECT UTILITY FUNCTION INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS ISSUES KEYSTONE SPECIES LAND ALLOCATION LAND COVER LAND USE LAND-USE LANDSCAPE LIVESTOCK MIGRATION MULTIPLIERS NATIONAL ECONOMY NATIONAL PARK NATIONAL PARKS NATURAL CAPITAL NATURAL RESOURCE NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION NATURAL RESOURCES NATURE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OPEN ACCESS OPTIMIZATION PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS PASTURES POACHING POPULATION DECLINE POPULATION DENSITIES PREDATOR PREDATOR POPULATIONS PREDATOR-PREY DYNAMICS PREY PRICE ELASTICITY PROPERTY RIGHTS PROTECTED AREAS QUOTAS RAINFALL RAINFALL VARIABILITY REGENERATIVE CAPACITY RHINOS SAFARI SAVANNA SIMULATION SPECIES SPECIES INTERACTIONS SPORT HUNTING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TOURISM TREE UNDERESTIMATES USE VALUE VALUE ADDED WAGES WILDLANDS WILDLIFE WILDLIFE CONSERVATION WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT WILLINGNESS TO PAY ZEBRAS
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Tanzania
2014-06-26T21:26:03Z | 2014-06-26T21:26:03Z | 2014-05

This paper presents a somewhat novel approach to explore the economic contribution of ecosystems. It develops linked models to capture connections between resource stocks and flows and the resulting microeconomic and macroeconomic impacts. A bioeconomic model is developed that is imbedded into a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Incorporating imperfect regulation, the bioeconomic model characterizes optimal policies, while the CGE model explores the economy-wide consequences of possible changes to the ecosystem. The model is parameterized and calibrated to the case of the Serengeti ecosystem which is perhaps the most intensively researched biome with a relative abundance of data. This ecosystem is also undergoing rapid change from a host of factors related to developments within and around the protected area system. The analysis identifies the contribution of the ecosystem to the economy and finds that changes in tourism and bushmeat hunting have surprisingly diffuse economy-wide impacts, that are especially large in the rural sector. To guard against overstatement, ecosystem impacts are under-stated relative to other effects. The results suggest that linkages to the natural resource sector (backward and forward multipliers) are important and neglecting these may lead to biased estimates.

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