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Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper

SME Contributions to Employment, Job Creation, and Growth in the Arab World

ACCESS TO CREDIT ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT ACCESS TO FINANCE ACCESS TO FINANCIAL SERVICES ACCESS TO FINANCING ACCESS TO FORMAL CREDIT ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACCESS TO MARKETS ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY AUDITS BANK BANK FINANCING BANK LENDING BANK LOANS BANKING SYSTEMS BANKRUPTCY BANKS BARRIERS TO ENTRY BASIC METALS BORROWERS BORROWING BRIBES BUSINESS ACTIVITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SERVICES BUSINESS PLAN BUSINESS PLANS BUSINESS STARTUPS BUSINESS SUCCESS CAPITAL CAPITAL ADEQUACY CAPITAL FUNDS CAPITAL INVESTMENT CAPITAL MARKETS CASH FLOW COLLATERAL REQUIREMENTS COMMERCIAL BANKS COMPETITIVE MARKETS COMPLIANCE COST CONSUMER PROTECTION COOPERATION CORRUPTION COST OF CREDIT CREDIT CREDIT BUREAUS CREDIT CARDS CREDIT DECISIONS CREDIT FACILITIES CREDIT GAP CREDIT HISTORY CREDIT INFORMATION CREDIT INFORMATION SYSTEM CREDIT INSTITUTIONS CREDIT PRODUCTS CREDIT REGISTRIES CREDITOR CREDITWORTHINESS DEMAND DEMOGRAPHICS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT OF VENTURE CAPITAL DISCRIMINATION DIVERSIFICATION ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY ECONOMIC REFORMS ECONOMIC RESOURCES ECONOMIC SITUATION EDUCATION SYSTEM EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE EMPLOYEE EMPLOYEES EMPLOYER EMPLOYERS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS EMPLOYMENT GROWTH EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE REGISTRATION ENTERPRISES ENTREPRENEUR ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL ENTREPRENEURS ENTREPRENEURSHIP OPPORTUNITIES ENVIRONMENTS EQUAL ACCESS EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EXCLUSION EXPECTATIONS FAMILIES FAMILY FEES FINANCE ACCESS FINANCE COSTS FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE FINANCIAL INNOVATION FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATIONS FINANCIAL MARKET FINANCIAL MARKETS FINANCIAL NEEDS FINANCIAL PRODUCT FINANCIAL PRODUCTS FINANCIAL SECTOR REFORMS FINANCIAL SERVICES FINANCIAL SYSTEM FINANCIAL SYSTEMS FINANCING FIRM DYNAMICS FIRM SIZE FISCAL DEFICITS FIXED COST FIXED COSTS FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT FORMAL FINANCIAL MARKET GENDER GENDER EQUALITY GENDER MAINSTREAMING GOOD CREDIT GOVERNMENT POLICIES GREATER ACCESS GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT HOME MORTGAGES HOUSEHOLD HOUSEHOLDS HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN RIGHTS HUSBAND INCENTIVES INEQUALITY INFORMAL WORKERS INFORMATION ASYMMETRY INTEREST INTEREST RATE INTERNAL FUNDS INTERNATIONAL BANK INVESTMENT INVESTMENT BARRIERS JOB JOB CREATION JOB OPPORTUNITIES JOBS JOBS CREATION KEY CHALLENGE KEY CHALLENGES LABOR FORCE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKETS LABOR PRODUCTIVITY LACK OF ACCESS LAND LENDING DECISIONS LENDING TECHNIQUES LINE OF CREDIT LOAN LOAN APPLICATION LOAN TERM MARKET ECONOMY MARKET INFORMATION MICRO ENTERPRISES MODELS MOVABLE COLLATERAL NEW BUSINESS NEW BUSINESSES OIL OPTIONS OUTREACH PATENTS PAYMENT PAYMENTS PEOPLE PERSONAL ASSETS PERSONAL FINANCE POLICY DECISIONS POLICY ENVIRONMENT POLICY MAKERS POLITICAL ECONOMY PRIVATE CREDIT PRIVATE INVESTMENT PRIVATE INVESTMENTS PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVILEGED ACCESS PRODUCERS PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH PROPERTY PROPERTY AS COLLATERAL PUBLIC CREDIT PUBLIC FINANCES RED TAPE REGULATORY POLICY REVENUES SMALL BUSINESS SMALL BUSINESSES SMALL ENTERPRISES SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SOURCE OF INCOME START-UP START-UPS SUSTAINABLE GROWTH TAX RATES TAXES TERM CREDIT TRADE TREASURY BILLS UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT RATES UNFAIR COMPETITION UNION VALUES VENTURE CAPITAL FIRMS WAGES WOMAN WOMAN ENTREPRENEURS WOMEN WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS WORKING CAPITAL
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Middle East and North Africa | North Africa | Middle East
2014-02-04T20:54:11Z | 2014-02-04T20:54:11Z | 2013-10

Recent economic and political developments have highlighted a challenge shared across the Arab region of generating employment, promoting inclusive growth, and improving competitiveness. In the short run, weakened macroeconomic fundamentals in the developing economies of the Middle East and North Africa are a key challenge. The region's main challenge is to achieve sustainable growth that delivers the quantity and quality of jobs needed. An inclusive and competitive private sector has proven to be one of the most effective and long-term solutions for this challenge. This paper provides an analytical framework to diagnose and identify key challenges to the growth of small and medium enterprises that is supported by a quantitative model based on the World Bank's Enterprise Surveys database. The findings reconfirm that the route to a sustained role for small and medium enterprises in job creation requires improving the credibility of reforms, the effectiveness of policies, and equitable enforcement. Although one size fits all is infeasible for Arab countries, it is important to design policies across sectors to create productive employment and promote economic growth. Supporting innovation and enhancing access to finance are central to the development agenda for small and medium enterprises. And creating an enabling environment and setting up accountable institutions are key to ensure equal opportunity and inclusive growth.

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