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Breaking Even or Breaking Through : Reaching Financial Sustainability while Providing High Quality Standards in Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa

ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS ACADEMIC PROGRAMS ACCREDITATION ACHIEVEMENT ALLOCATION MECHANISM ALLOCATION MECHANISMS ALLOCATION OF FUNDS ALTERNATIVE FINANCING ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF FUNDING APPLICATION PROCESS BANK LOANS BANKING SYSTEM BASIC EDUCATION BASIC SKILLS BLOCK GRANT BLOCK GRANTS BROAD ACCESS BUSINESS ENTRY BUSINESS TRAINING CIVIL SERVICE CIVIL SOCIETY COGNITIVE SKILLS COMMUNITY COLLEGES CONTINUING EDUCATION CORRUPTION COST-SHARING CURRICULA DEGREES DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATION DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS DISCIPLINES DISTANCE EDUCATION DIVERSIFICATION DROP OUTS E-LEARNING EARNINGS ECONOMIC ACTIVITY ECONOMIC CRISIS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH EDUCATION LEVEL EDUCATION OUTCOMES EDUCATION POLICIES EDUCATION PROGRAMS EDUCATION QUALITY EDUCATION SECTOR EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT EDUCATIONAL GOALS EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS EDUCATIONAL QUALITY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA EMPLOYERS EMPLOYMENT EMPLOYMENT GROWTH EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ENDOWMENTS ENGINEERING EDUCATION ENROLLMENT ENROLLMENT GROWTH ENROLLMENT RATES ENROLLMENT RATIO EQUIPMENT COSTS EXPENDITURE FACULTIES FAMILIES FIELDS OF STUDY FINANCIAL AID FINANCIAL AID TO STUDENTS FINANCIAL NEEDS FINANCIAL RESOURCES FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY FINANCING NEEDS FISCAL POLICY FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT FOREIGN FIRMS FOREIGN INVESTMENT FORMAL EDUCATION FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEMS FREE ACCESS FUNDING SOURCE GENDER GOVERNMENT GRANTS GRADUATE LEVEL HIGHER EDUCATION HIGHER EDUCATION FINANCING HIGHER EDUCATION FUNDING HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS HIGHER EDUCATION SUPPLY HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEMS HOUSEHOLDS HUMAN CAPITAL INEQUALITIES INEQUALITY INFORMAL WORKERS INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE INSTITUTIONAL AUTONOMY INSTRUCTION INTELLECTUAL CONTRIBUTION INTEREST RATES INTERNATIONAL BANKING INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION JOB MARKET JOB TRAINING KEY CHALLENGES KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY LABOR FORCE LABOR FORCE SURVEY LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKETS LABOR MOBILITY LACK OF ACCESS LEARNING LEARNING OUTCOMES LIFE SKILLS MIGRANT WORKERS NEW MARKETS OPEN UNIVERSITY OPERATIONAL COSTS PER STUDENT EXPENDITURES POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTES PRIMARY SCHOOLS PRIVATE FUNDING PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION PRIVATE INVESTMENT PRIVATE INVESTMENTS PRIVATE TERTIARY EDUCATION PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES PROFESSIONAL TRAINING PROFITABILITY PUBLIC EXPENDITURES PUBLIC FINANCES PUBLIC FUNDS PUBLIC SUBSIDIES PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES PUBLIC UNIVERSITY PUPILS PURCHASING POWER PURCHASING POWER PARITY QUALITY EDUCATION QUALITY OF EDUCATION QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION QUALITY STANDARDS RATES OF RETURN REAL ESTATE RECESSION REMITTANCES REPEATERS SAVINGS SCHOLARSHIP SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMS SCHOLARSHIPS SCHOOL DROP SCHOOLING SCHOOLS SCIENTISTS SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY SCHOOL SECONDARY SCHOOL GRADUATES SECONDARY SCHOOLS SKILLS DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL BENEFITS SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL JUSTICE SOCIAL MOBILITY SOCIAL NETWORK SOCIAL SCIENCES SOCIAL SKILLS SOCIAL WELFARE SOURCES OF FUNDS STUDENT AID STUDENT DEMAND STUDENT EXPENDITURES STUDENT FEES STUDENT INTAKE STUDENT LEARNING STUDENT LOAN STUDENT LOAN PROGRAMS STUDENT LOANS STUDENT POPULATION STUDENT SUPPORT TAX CREDIT TEACHING TECHNICAL SKILLS TERTIARY EDUCATION TERTIARY EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS TERTIARY EDUCATION SYSTEM TERTIARY EDUCATION SYSTEMS TERTIARY ENROLLMENTS TERTIARY GRADUATES TRANSACTION COSTS TUITION TUITION FEES UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE UNEMPLOYMENT RATES UNFAIR COMPETITION UNIVERSITIES UNIVERSITY AUTONOMY UNIVERSITY DEGREE UNIVERSITY EDUCATION UNIVERSITY GRADUATES UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS VOCATIONAL EDUCATION VOUCHER VOUCHERS WORKERS
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Middle East and North Africa | Middle East | North Africa
Jaramillo, Adriana | Melonio, Thomas
2016-03-31T19:04:15Z | 2016-03-31T19:04:15Z | 2011-08

Higher education (HE) systems worldwide are faced with three main challenges: providing young people with the skills required by the job market; improving access to high quality services; and seeking out new sources of financing to cope with the growing student demand. This document will provide evidence on the need to seek sustainable financing strategies for countries in Middle East and North Africa (MENA), whether they are high income economies, such as the oil producing countries, or low to middle income economies. Chapter one presents an overall description of HE graduates and the many challenges they face in their transition into the workforce. The different elements that affect this transition are discussed and special attention is given to the mismatches between labor supply and demand. Chapter two analyses the current levels of spending on HE, projects the future financing gaps taking into account the need to continue expanding access and improving quality and relevance, and provides a framework for funding approaches linked to meeting access, equity, and quality goals. Chapter three outlines ways of using current funds in more effective ways, emphasizing the need to align financing allocations with policy goals. Innovative funding allocations that link funding to performance and demand- as well as supply-side mechanisms are discussed. Chapter four discusses different ways to diversify sources of funding and presents alternative methods of cost-sharing. The chapter emphasizes the equity measures needed for cost-sharing mechanisms, such as student fees, and provides an overview of student loan programs used in MENA and elsewhere. Chapter five discusses the role of private provision of HE, and how this can be an alternative to increase access and quality, provided the necessary regulatory and quality controls are in place. Chapter six describes an alternative source of funding not yet common in MENA, namely the use of philanthropic resources to build endowments to support HE.

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