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Working Paper

Can Intense Exposure to Hand-Washing and Hygiene Information Campaigns Affect Children's Socio-Emotional Skills? : Evidence from Senegal

SKILLS SANITATION WATER QUALITY CHILD HEALTH INFERENCE CAREGIVERS RISKS WASHING HANDS PEOPLE ILLITERACY EARLY LEARNING SCHOOLING PREVENTION HAND WASHING EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES BIAS GROUPS HEALTH EDUCATION STRATEGIES SOCIAL BEHAVIOR HEALTH WASHING SAFE WATER HEALTH PRACTICES CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION DISINFECTION SOAP LANGUAGE ATTRIBUTION PUBLIC HEALTH HYGIENE PRACTICES LITERACY KNOWLEDGE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PERSONAL HYGIENE IMAGINATION IRON INFECTIOUS DISEASES HYGIENE BEHAVIORS SOCIAL SKILLS INTERVENTION ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT HEALTH INDICATORS ABILITY CHILD DEVELOPMENT MARKETING LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES MATURATION LEARNING CHILD DISEASES COGNITIVE OUTCOMES RECALL MENTAL HEALTH MORTALITY NEWSPAPERS HEALTH PROMOTION DISEASE INCIDENCE COGNITION NUTRITIONAL STATUS HYGIENE HABITS INFORMATION CAMPAIGNS HYGIENE BEHAVIOR BELIEFS EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT STUDY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES WORKERS BASIC HYGIENE SCIENCE AGED EMPATHY HABITS INFLUENZA VALUES SCHOOLS HANDS WITH SOAP PARTICIPATION CONTROL GROUPS BEHAVIORAL CHANGE AGE CHILDHOOD HEALTH POLICY WATER SANITATION COMPETENCE HEALTH OUTCOMES DIARRHEA HYGIENE PROMOTION HYGIENE ACHIEVEMENT EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT EFFORT CAMPAIGNS EARLY CHILDHOOD HEALTH BEHAVIOR MEASUREMENT SPEECH NUTRITION COGNITIVE ABILITY YOUNG CHILDREN HANDWASHING MOTOR SKILLS INTERNET RISK FACTORS WEIGHT PERCEPTION EDUCATION PROGRAMS COGNITIVE SKILLS UNDERSTANDING CHILDREN EDUCATION SKILL DEVELOPMENT DRINKING WATER INVESTMENT PLAYING RURAL AREAS CLEAN WATER HYGIENE PROMOTION PROGRAMS EXPERIENCE INFANTS ATTENTION CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT INTERACTIONS AGE COHORT COMMUNICATION QUALITY ASSURANCE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS INTERVENTIONS STRATEGY POOR HYGIENE FAMILIES WOMEN MEMORY INFANCY INTESTINAL PARASITES COMMUNICATION SKILLS COMMUNICATION DISORDERS HEALTH AND HYGIENE WATER DISINFECTION BEHAVIOR CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION HABIT FORMATION CONTAMINATION
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Senegal
2015-12-17T23:05:07Z | 2015-12-17T23:05:07Z | 2015-11

Hygiene information and practices play a critical role in preventing diseases, particularly among children. Hygiene behaviors practiced in the household have been linked to development outcomes such as socio-emotional skills. This paper exploits data from impact evaluation surveys of a hygiene information campaign conducted in Senegal, where the randomized design suffered from contamination between comparison groups. The variations in exposure and intensity to hygiene information campaigns captured in the surveys were used to understand contamination biases. Such variations were interacted with the presence of household communication assets to explore potential effects on children’s socio-emotional scores. In the presence of contamination biases, the study exploited the longitudinal sample of children in the surveys to reduce time-dependent biases. For robustness, statistical matching was applied between the impact evaluation surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2008 and 2011. Socio-emotional outcomes were the imputed into Demographic and Health surveys to expand sample sizes. By applying matching techniques and imputing outcomes into a larger sample, impacts were non-negligible. Double-difference estimates showed that children’s socio-emotional scores were higher when intervention status was interacted with the presence of communication assets within households. Without the presence of communication assets in the households the impacts were close to zero. Evaluating the effect of hygiene campaigns on children’s socio-emotional skills is challenging because of the biases from contamination that exist when information flows between comparison groups. Targeted hygiene information to the poorest households is relevant for reducing risks of recurrent infections and enables better conditions for socio-emotional development of children.

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