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Working Paper

Investigating the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity : Evidence from Uganda

LIVING STANDARDS HOUSEHOLD INCOMES COMMUNITIES AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SUBSISTENCE VILLAGES FERTILIZER PRODUCTION CROPPING PATTERNS CROP SELECTION FARMER SCHOOLING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION FARM PRODUCTIVITY INFORMATION LABOR FORCE SERVICES FOOD POLICY PLANTING CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS FARM ENTERPRISE HEALTH IFPRI AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS PROJECTS FEMALE HEADED HOUSEHOLDS RURAL POOR WATER HARVESTING FEMALE- HEADED HOUSEHOLDS AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT HOUSEHOLD DEMOGRAPHICS REGION POVERTY REDUCTION FERTILIZERS KNOWLEDGE CROP PRODUCTION CEREALS RURAL HOUSEHOLD CASH CROPS TRAINING TREE CROPS DWELLING POPULATION GROWTH HOUSEHOLD HEAD SEEDS INCOME INEQUALITY MOBILITY FARM SIZE MARKETS SEED FRUITS VEGETABLES CROP PROTECTION LAND RIGHTS INDICATORS RESEARCH FARMING LIVESTOCK EXTENSION AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH ORGANIZATION FARMERS LAND VALUE CULTIVATED LAND CROPS SMALLHOLDER FARMS DESIGN AGRICULTURAL POLICY SEED VARIETIES CONSUMPTION FARM ASSETS HUMAN CAPITAL REGIONAL VARIATIONS FOOD SECURITY CROP FEMALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS FAMILY EXTENSION SERVICES LAND QUALITY GENDER CULTIVATION AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT FEMALE WORKERS URBAN AREAS CROPPING HOUSEHOLD AGRICULTURAL SECTOR COFFEE AGRICULTURE INCOMES FAO MALNUTRITION NUTRITION MARKET LAND SIZE HARVESTING HOUSEHOLD DISTRIBUTION ECONOMICS AGRICULTURAL INPUTS MANAGEMENT EXPORT CROPS FEMALE FARMERS FISHERIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT LAND LAND PRODUCTIVITY AGRICULTURAL LABOR CLIMATIC ZONE REGIONS EDUCATION FEMALES HUMAN ECOLOGY IRRIGATION FARM HOUSEHOLDS EQUALITY POVERTY POOR FARMERS OILSEEDS BANANAS FARMS ECOLOGY AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION DWELLINGS AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY FUNDING INTERVENTIONS COMMUNITY WOMEN AGRICULTURAL LABOR MARKETS TECHNOLOGIES RURAL DEVELOPMENT WATER SOURCE PULSES FEMALE SOIL QUALITY SERVICE DISTRICTS WAGE EMPLOYMENT CASH FLOW CENTRAL REGION GENDER EQUALITY REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Uganda
2015-06-02T17:07:33Z | 2015-06-02T17:07:33Z | 2015-05

Women comprise 50 percent of the agricultural labor force in Sub-Saharan Africa, but manage plots that are reportedly on average 20 to 30 percent less productive. As a source of income inequality and aggregate productivity loss, the country-specific magnitude and drivers of this gender gap are of great interest. Using national data from the Uganda National Panel Survey for 2009/10 and 2010/11, the gap before controlling for endowments was estimated to be 17.5 percent. Panel data methods were combined with an Oaxaca decomposition to investigate the gender differences in resource endowment and return to endowment driving this gap. Although men have greater access to inputs, input use is so low and inverse returns to plot size so strong in Uganda that smaller female-managed plots have a net endowment advantage of 12 percent, revealing a larger unexplained gap of 29.5 percent. Two-fifths of this unexplained gap is attributed to differential returns to the child dependency ratio and one-fifth to differential returns to transport access, implying that greater child care responsibilities and difficulty accessing input and output markets from areas without transport are the largest drivers of the gap. Smaller and less robust drivers include differential uptake of cash crops, and differential uptake and return to improved seeds and pesticides.

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