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Working Paper

Breaking the Metal Ceiling : Female Entrepreneurs Who Succeed in Male-Dominated Sectors

FEMALE ENTREPRENEUR BUSINESS ACTIVITIES BUSINESS OWNERS EMPOWERMENT BIRTH CREDIT COOPERATIVE EDUCATION LEVELS ECONOMIC GROWTH PEOPLE FINANCIAL RESOURCES ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES BRIBES INTEREST FINANCIAL LITERACY ENROLLMENT BIAS INTEREST RATE FINANCIAL RESOURCES SOURCES OF CREDIT FINANCIAL SUPPORT BANK ACCOUNT ENTREPRENEURS MOTHERS DISCRIMINATION FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS INEQUALITIES FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP REVENUES CREDIT CONSTRAINTS LIMITED ACCESS TO FINANCE LOAN BUSINESS OWNERSHIP FEMALE BUSINESS INTEREST RATE CORRUPTION SAVING ECONOMIC ACTIVITY INTERNATIONAL BANK BUSINESS SUCCESS FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS ECONOMIC ACTIVITY SMALL BUSINESS SMALL BUSINESS LABOR MARKET DOMESTIC VIOLENCE WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS SAVINGS CREDIT COOPERATIVE AID SOURCE OF CREDIT FEMALE ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SERVICES BUSINESS OWNERSHIP BARRIERS TO ENTRY ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES LIMITED ACCESS MALE CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES EDUCATION SYSTEM ECONOMIES OF SCALE ACCESS TO FINANCE ENTERPRISES FEMALE BUSINESS STRUCTURAL INEQUALITIES SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT FINANCE VOUCHER ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY EXPENDITURE LABOR MARKET EQUITY HUMAN CAPITAL GENDER GAPS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE GENDER SEGREGATION CREDIT CONSTRAINTS FEMALE ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY WOMEN BUSINESS OWNERS CAPITAL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SERVICES FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP SMALL ENTERPRISES GENDER DIFFERENCES CREDIT PROVIDERS GENDER SEGREGATION WOMAN EDUCATION LEVELS FAMILY FINANCIAL CAPITAL ACCESS TO FINANCE BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT GENDER BANK FATHERS CREDIT BUSINESS NETWORK BUSINESS OWNER HOUSEHOLD EDUCATION LEVEL ENTERPRISE PROPERTY YOUTH GENDER GAPS MOTHER WOMEN BUSINESS OWNERS BUSINESS SUPPORT SOURCE OF CREDIT FEMALE ENTREPRENEUR HUMAN CAPITAL FORMAL BANK PROFITABILITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SEX MICROFINANCE FINANCIAL CAPITAL BUSINESS WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP OPPORTUNITIES BUSINESS SUCCESS BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES MICROFINANCE INSTITUTION BUSINESS ACTIVITY ECONOMIES OF SCALE HUSBAND BUSINESS OWNER INVESTMENT FATHER PROFITABLE BUSINESSES CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS BUSINESS RECORDS EQUALITY BUSINESSWOMEN FAMILY FARM EMPLOYEE REVENUE EARNINGS FINANCIAL SUPPORT BORROWING INFORMED CHOICES ENTREPRENEURIAL FINANCE MARRIED WOMEN FEES WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR BUSINESS PLANNING BUSINESS WOMEN PROFITABLE BUSINESSES FEMALE ECONOMIC GROWTH SELF‐EMPLOYMENT COOPERATIVE GENDER EQUALITY WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS BUSINESS MANAGEMENT MICROFINANCE INSTITUTION EMPLOYEES AFRICA GENDER POLICY GENDER INNOVATION LAB WOMEN AND PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Uganda
2015-12-18T22:30:21Z | 2015-12-18T22:30:21Z | 2015-12

A range of reasons is cited to explain gender differences in business performance in Africa. Within those, the sector of operations is consistently identified as a major issue. This paper uses a mixed methods approach to assess how women entrepreneurs in Uganda start (and strive) operating firms in male-dominated sectors, and what hinders other women from doing so. The study finds that women who cross over into male-dominated sectors make as much as men, and three times more than women who stay in female-dominated sectors. The paper examines a set of factors to explain the differences in sector choices, and finds that there is a problem of information about opportunities in male-dominated industries. The analysis also concludes that psychosocial factors, particularly the influence of male role models and exposure to the sector from family and friends, are critical in helping women circumvent or overcome the norms that undergird occupational segregation.

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