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Working Paper

Assessing the Reintegration of Ex-Combatants in the Context of Instability and Informal Economies : The Cases of the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo and South Sudan

ADULT LITERACY ADULT POPULATION AGRICULTURE ARMED CONFLICT ARMED FORCE BOTH SEXES BOUNDARIES CAPITAL FLIGHT CASH CROPS CIVIL WAR COMMERCIAL BANKS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS COMPETITIVENESS CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK CONFLICT CONFLICT RESOLUTION CONSTRAINT CONSUMERS CONVENTION COUNSELLING CULTURAL PRACTICES DEATHS DEBT DEFENCE DEFENCE POLICY DEMOBILIZATION DEVELOPED COUNTRIES DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES DEVELOPMENT PROJECT DISARMAMENT DISEASES DISSEMINATION ECONOMIC ACTIVITY ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC IMPACT ECONOMIC INTEGRATION ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES ECONOMIC PROCESSES ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ECONOMIC REINTEGRATION ECONOMIC SECTOR ECONOMIC SITUATION ECONOMIC SYSTEMS EMPLOYMENT CREATION EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTS EX-COMBATANT EXPLOITATION EXPORTS FACT SHEET FEASIBILITY STUDY FEMALE COMBATANTS FIGHTING FISH FISHING FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS FOOD INSECURITY FOOD SECURITY FORESTRY FORMER FIGHTERS GDP GDP PER CAPITA GENDER DISCRIMINATION GENDER INEQUALITY GOVERNMENT OFFICES GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS GRAVE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROSS ENROLMENT RATIO GROSS NATIONAL INCOME GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT PER CAPITA HOME COUNTRIES HUMAN DEVELOPMENT HUMAN SECURITY HUSBANDS IMF INCOME-GENERATING ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL BANK INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION JOB OPPORTUNITIES LABOUR MARKET LAND TENURE LEGAL STATUS LIFE EXPECTANCY LIVE BIRTHS LIVELIHOOD OPPORTUNITIES LIVING STANDARDS LOCAL AUTHORITIES LOCAL ECONOMY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS MATERNAL MORTALITY MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO MEAT MEDICAL CARE MEETING MILITARY PERSONNEL MINES MORTALITY MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE NATIONAL BOUNDARIES NATIONAL INCOME NATIONS NATURAL RESOURCES OIL PARALLEL ECONOMY PEACE PEACE AGREEMENTS PEACEKEEPING PER CAPITA INCOME POPULATION GROWTH POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION POST-CONFLICT SETTINGS PRACTITIONERS PRIMARY SCHOOL PROGRESS PROJECT DOCUMENTS PROPERTY RIGHTS RATES OF POPULATION REAL GDP REBEL RECONCILIATION RECONSTRUCTION REGRESSION ANALYSIS REHABILITATION REHABILITATION ASSISTANCE REINTEGRATION PROCESS REPATRIATION RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS RESPECT ROAD RULE OF LAW RURAL AREAS RURAL COMMUNITIES SAFETY NET SCHOOL ENROLMENT SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY SCHOOL SECURITY CONCERN SECURITY FORCES SKILLS DEVELOPMENT SMALL BUSINESS SOCIAL REINTEGRATION SOLDIERS STATISTICAL ANALYSIS SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH TAXATION TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TECHNICAL COOPERATION TIMBER TOLERANCE TRADE BARRIERS TRANSACTION COSTS TRANSPORTATION UNDERDEVELOPMENT UNDP UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT RATES UNIVERSITIES URBAN AREAS VIOLENCE VIOLENT CONFLICT VOCATIONAL TRAINING WAR WAR ECONOMIES WEALTH WEAPONS YOUNG MEN
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Central African Republic | Congo, Democratic Republic of | South Sudan
2017-06-20T21:41:52Z | 2017-06-20T21:41:52Z | 2011-12

The implementation of effective Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programmes in countries emerging from violent conflict are essential for building and maintaining peace and security. In many instances the disarmament and demobilisation of former combatants was achieved, but reintegration remained a challenge, due to the long-term focus and the substantial resources that are required for such a process to be successful. Reintegration processes are, nonetheless, often implemented in fragile environments, that include fragmented economies, in which most income generating activities are informal or unreported. Such economies are often characterised by unregulated, illicit activities, in which official governance is weak. This report is comprised of three parts. Part one includes a review of the literature on the reintegration of former combatants and the informal economy in Africa; a synopsis of post-conflict economies; and an outline of the analytical framework. Part two presents the findings of the case study research, focusing on the economies and DDR processes in each of the three countries, as well as assessing the reintegration process in relation to the informal economy. The third component of the report provides a comparative analysis of, and conclusions from, the research findings.

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