The report focuses on the two decades of the World Bank - Global Environment Facility (GEF) partnership with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. This partnership has had a global environmental impact by working both at the local and national level and engaging all relevant partners and stakeholders. In addition, many GEF financed operations stand as examples of what a more holistic approach can achieve in terms of innovation and catalyzing greater investment. These operations have also delivered important social benefits such as job creation, enhanced economic and social inclusion, and strengthened governance capabilities. Presently the region s most pressing environmental challenges stem from rapid urbanization and its resulting infrastructure needs, industrial pollution, overexploitation of scarce water resources, the unsustainable management of fragile ecosystem resources and vulnerability to climate variability and climate change. Decision makers working to address these problems also face many tightly linked and urgent social issues. These issues include meeting the aspirations of a quickly growing urban youth population; giving voice to gender and women s issues; finding ways to spur job growth; and reversing the poor provision of basic services. This publication also points to opportunities for further World Bank - GEF cooperation in support of green growth.