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Economic & Sector Work :: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study

Vertical and Regional Integration to Promote African Textiles and Clothing Exports : A Close Knit Family?

ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGE ACCESS TO FOREIGN MARKETS AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS APPAREL APPAREL EXPORT APPAREL EXPORTS APPAREL INDUSTRIES APPAREL INDUSTRY APPAREL SECTOR APPAREL TRADE AVERAGE PRICES AVERAGE TARIFFS BILATERAL AGREEMENT BRANDS CENTRAL AMERICA CENTRAL AMERICAN CLOTHING CLOTHING EXPORTS CLOTHING INDUSTRY CLOTHING PRODUCTS COMMON MARKET COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE COMPETITIVENESS CONSUMER PREFERENCES CONSUMERS COTTON COUNTRY MARKETS CUSTOMS CUSTOMS UNION DEVELOPED COUNTRIES DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DOMESTIC COTTON PRODUCTION DOMESTIC DEMAND DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES DOMESTIC MARKET DOMESTIC MARKETS DYEING ECONOMIES OF SCALE EXPORT DIVERSIFICATION EXPORT GROWTH EXPORT INDUSTRIES EXPORT MARKETS EXPORT PRICES EXPORT PROCESSING EXPORT PROCESSING ZONE EXPORT PRODUCTS EXPORT PROMOTION EXPORT SECTOR EXPORT SECTORS EXPORT SHARE EXPORT VALUE EXPORT VOLUMES EXPORTERS EXPORTS EXTERNAL TARIFFS FABRICS FIBER FIBERS FINISHED PRODUCTS FOOTWEAR FOREIGN EXCHANGE FOREIGN MARKETS FREE ACCESS FREE TRADE FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS FREE TREATMENT GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS GENERALIZED SYSTEM OF PREFERENCES GLOBAL MARKETS GLOBAL TRADE GNP GROWTH RATE HIGH TARIFFS IMPORT DUTIES IMPORT PRICE IMPORT PRICES IMPORT TARIFFS IMPORT VALUE IMPORTS OF TEXTILES INTERMEDIATE INPUTS INTERNATIONAL MARKET INVENTORIES INVENTORY ITC KNITTING LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKET POLICIES LDCS MANMADE FIBERS MARKET ACCESS MARKET INFORMATION MARKET SHARE MARKET SHARES MARKETING MERCHANDISE MERGERS NATURAL RESOURCES NET EXPORTER NET EXPORTERS NET IMPORTER OF TEXTILES PATTERN OF TRADE PREFERENTIAL ACCESS PREFERENTIAL ARRANGEMENTS PREFERENTIAL MARKET ACCESS PREFERENTIAL TRADE PREFERENTIAL TRADE AGREEMENTS PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT PRODUCTION PLANNING PROFIT MARGINS QUOTA REMOVAL QUOTAS RAW MATERIALS REGIONAL INTEGRATION REGIONAL TRADE REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS RESTRICTIVE RULES OF ORIGIN RETAIL RULES OF ORIGIN SAFEGUARD CLAUSE SALE SALES SEED COTTON SEWING SOURCING SOUTH ASIAN SPINNING SPREAD SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA SUPPLIER SUPPLIERS SUPPLY CHAIN SUPPLY CHAINS TARIFF LEVELS TARIFF PREFERENCES TARIFF PROTECTION TELECOMMUNICATIONS TEXTILE TEXTILE IMPORTS TEXTILE INDUSTRY TOTAL OUTPUT TRADE LIBERALIZATION TRADE PATTERNS TRADE POLICIES TRADE POLICY TRADE POLICY INSTRUMENTS TRADE PREFERENCES TRADE RESTRICTIONS TRANSPORT COSTS UNILATERAL PREFERENCES UNILATERAL TRADE VALUE ADDED VALUE OF EXPORTS VOLATILITY WAGES WEAVING WOOL WORLD MARKET WORLD TRADE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION WTO YARN YARNS
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Washington, DC
Africa
2012-06-13T14:34:29Z | 2012-06-13T14:34:29Z | 2007-07

Apparel production is especially labor intensive, with low start-up investments and easily transferable technology. Furthermore, the labor requirements can be easily met with low and semi-skilled workers, especially women. As a result, many countries with competitive labor costs, especially in South and East Asia, have captured significant shares in the world market during the last four decades. Despite the potential development benefits and their various sources of comparative advantage, few African countries have managed to establish a presence in the global textiles and apparel markets until recently. As a result, Africa as a whole remains a net importer of textiles and clothing even though it is a net exporter of cotton. The future of apparel exporters in sub-Saharan Africa is, however, rather uncertain as they face two major challenges for their products: i) increased competition from large, low-wage producers such as India, China, Bangladesh and Pakistan following the phase-out of quotas after the expiry of the ATC; and, ii) the expiration of the third-country fabric derogation under AGOA scheduled for 2013. This study explores the potential for regional and vertical integration to overcome these challenges and identifies obstacles to this. Timing is important since both the EU and the US have recently imposed trade restrictions on China (until 2008) to protect their domestic textiles and clothing industries. These safeguards provide a brief opportunity for sub-Saharan African producers to integrate their textiles and clothing industries both domestically and regionally.

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