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Potential Applications of Conditional Cash Transfers for Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa

ABSTINENCE ADDICTION ADHERENCE TO MEDICATIONS ADOLESCENT ADOLESCENT GIRLS AGED AGGRESSIVE AIDS EPIDEMIC AIDS ORPHANS AIDS PANDEMIC AIDS PATIENT AIDS PREVENTION AIDS VACCINE AIDS VIRUS ALCOHOL ALCOHOL ABUSE ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE ALCOHOL USE ANAL SEX ANTENATAL CARE ANTIBIOTICS BABY BEHAVIOR CHANGE BEHAVIORAL CHANGE BEHAVIORAL CHANGES BIOLOGICAL MARKERS BIOLOGICAL OUTCOMES BIRTH RATES BLOOD SPECIMEN BLOOD TESTS CHILD HEALTH CHLAMYDIA CIRCUMCISION CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY CLINICAL TRIALS CLINICS COCAINE COMMERCIAL SEX COMMERCIAL SEX WORK CONDOM CONDOM PROMOTION CONDOM USE CONDOMS CONTRACEPTION CONTRACEPTIVE PREVALENCE CONTRACEPTIVE USE COST EFFECTIVENESS COUNSELING INTERVENTION DECISION MAKING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT POLICY DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY DIETS DISEASE DISEASE CONTROL DISEASE TRANSMISSION DRUG ABUSE DRUGS ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY EDUCATIONAL SERVICES ELDERLY FAMILIES FAMILY MEMBER FAMILY PLANNING FAMILY SIZE FERTILITY FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS GLOBAL ACTION GLOBAL AIDS EPIDEMIC GLOBAL HEALTH GONORRHEA GROUP THERAPY HEALTH CARE HEALTH CARE SERVICES HEALTH EDUCATION HEALTH EXPERTS HEALTH IMPACT HEALTH INTERVENTIONS HEALTH OUTCOMES HEALTH PLANNING HEALTH POLICY HEALTH RISKS HEALTH SERVICES HEALTH SYSTEMS HIV HIV INFECTION HIV INFECTIONS HIV PREVENTION HIV TESTING HIV TRANSMISSION HOUSEHOLD INCOME HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ILLNESS IMMUNIZATION INDIVIDUAL CHOICES INFECTION RATES INTERNATIONAL FAMILY PLANNING INTERNATIONAL FAMILY PLANNING PERSPECTIVES INTERVENTION KIDS LATIN AMERICAN MALE CIRCUMCISION MASS COMMUNICATION METHADONE METHADONE PATIENTS MOTHER MOTHER-TO-CHILD MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION NEGATIVE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES NEW INFECTIONS NEWBORNS NUTRITIONAL STATUS NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS OBESITY OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE OVERWEIGHT PATIENT PATIENT CARE PATIENTS PEER PRESSURE PILOT PROJECTS POLICY GOALS POLICY RESEARCH POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER POOR FAMILIES POOR HOUSEHOLDS POOR POPULATIONS POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT POVERTY ALLEVIATION POVERTY REDUCTION PREGNANCIES PREGNANCY PREGNANT WOMEN PREVALENCE RATES PREVENTION ACTIVITIES PREVENTION COUNSELING PREVENTION EFFORTS PREVENTION OF MOTHER PREVENTION OF MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION PREVENTION STRATEGIES PREVENTIVE HEALTH PREVENTIVE HEALTH CARE PREVENTIVE MEDICINE PRIMARY EDUCATION PRIVACY PRIVATE PROVIDERS PROGRESS PSYCHIATRY PSYCHOLOGISTS PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY PUBLIC HEALTH PUBLIC SERVICE PUBLIC SERVICE PROVIDERS PUBLIC SERVICES RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH POLICY REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES RESPECT RISK BEHAVIOR RISK BEHAVIORS RISK-TAKING BEHAVIOR RISKY BEHAVIOR RISKY BEHAVIORS RISKY SEX RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIOR RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIORS RURAL AREAS RURAL POPULATION SAFE BLOOD SCHOOL ATTENDANCE SCHOOLS SCREENING SELF-TREATMENT SERVICE PROVIDERS SEX SEX WORK SEX WORKERS SEXUAL ACTIVITY SEXUAL BEHAVIORS SEXUAL CONTACT SEXUAL ENCOUNTERS SEXUAL PARTNERS SEXUAL PLEASURE SEXUAL PRACTICES SEXUAL RELATIONSHIP SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTION SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS SMOKERS SMOKING SMOKING CESSATION SOCIAL SUPPORT STD STDS STERILIZATION STIS SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA SUBSTANCE ABUSE SYMPTOMS TEEN TEEN PREGNANCIES TEENS THERAPEUTIC APPROACH TOBACCO TOBACCO CONTROL TOXICOLOGY TRANSMISSION RATES TRICHOMONAS UNAIDS UNPROTECTED SEX URBAN AREAS VACCINATION VACCINATION PROGRAMS VACCINES VIRAL LOAD VIRAL LOADS VIRUS VOLUNTARY COUNSELING WEIGHT GAIN WEIGHT LOSS WEIGHT REDUCTION YOUNG CHILDREN YOUNG GIRLS YOUNG PEOPLE YOUTH
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Sub-Saharan Africa
2012-05-31T22:17:21Z | 2012-05-31T22:17:21Z | 2008-07

A growing number of developing countries have introduced conditional cash transfer programs that provide money to poor families with certain contingencies attached - such as requiring school attendance or regular immunization and health check-ups. As the popularity of conditional cash transfer programs has grown, experimentation with potential applications in other areas of health, such as sexual and reproductive health, and HIV prevention, in particular, has also increased. Evaluations of conditional cash transfer programs have focused almost exclusively on uptake of health and educational services, which make relatively low demands of participants compared with more complex interventions, which require the cessation of risky behaviors, such as smoking, obesity, and substance abuse. The literature on contingency management - based on the principle that behavioral change occurs when appropriate behaviors are reinforced and rewarded - provides a richer picture of the complexity of the use of conditionality to encourage healthy behavioral change. This paper examines developing countries' experiences with conditional cash transfer programs and the results of trials in clinical settings on the efficacy of contingency management, and addresses their relevance for designing conditional cash transfer programs to address risky sexual behavior and promote the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa.

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