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Regional Imbalances, Horizontal Inequalities, and Violent Conflicts : Insights from Four West African Countries

SANITATION LIVING STANDARDS RELIGIOUS DIFFERENCES CHILD HEALTH POPULATION CENSUSES SUBSISTENCE REGIONAL TERMS FORMAL EDUCATION LACK OF EDUCATION CONTRACEPTION POOR COMMUNITIES REGIONAL POLITICS POVERTY LEVELS SCHOOLING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION POVERTY RATES REGIONAL LEVEL ETHNIC GROUPS DEVELOPING COUNTRIES HOUSING NATIONAL POVERTY ETHNIC GROUP OIL- PRODUCING REGION REGIONAL POLICIES INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS DEVELOPMENT GOALS POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY PAPER POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY PAPERS AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT “PLAN REGION POVERTY REDUCTION INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REGIONAL POVERTY POPULATION CENSUS MINISTRY OF HEALTH REGIONAL ASPECTS CASH CROPS REGIONAL PLANS REGIONAL IMBALANCES INCOME INEQUALITY POLITICAL POWER MIGRATION LAND RIGHTS CASH INCOME CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE MORTALITY RATE LAND OWNERSHIP SOCIAL PROTECTION FOOD AID MORTALITY REGIONAL BALANCE REGIONAL DISPARITIES RESPECT INFANT MORTALITY CONSUMPTION INFANT FOOD SECURITY ACCESS TO JOBS CLIMATE CHANGE POLICIES POLITICAL TURMOIL REGIONALISM COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE CORE REGION ETHNIC CONFLICT REDUCTION IN POVERTY REGIONAL INCOME INEQUALITIES REGIONAL DIMENSIONS SUBSISTENCE CROPS PRODUCTION OF CASH CROPS REGIONAL TARGETS REGIONAL DIFFERENCES MEDICAL SERVICES SPATIAL INEQUALITY POPULATION DENSITY URBAN AREAS FAMILY PLANNING RURAL ECONOMY NOMADIC POPULATIONS POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY DISADVANTAGED GROUPS MALNUTRITION COMMERCIAL CROPS NUTRITION POPULATIONS AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES POVERTY TARGET POLICY CHILD MORTALITY CHILD MORTALITY RATES REGIONAL IMPACT SOCIAL CAPITAL ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY REGIONAL DIMENSION HUMAN RIGHTS SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITIES REGIONS WAR IRRIGATION REGIONAL OUTPUT REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POVERTY REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION COASTAL REGION INTERNAL MIGRATION ABSOLUTE TERMS INCIDENCE OF POVERTY POPULATION REGIONAL DIFFERENTIALS SOCIAL INEQUALITIES DECLINE IN POVERTY REGIONAL INCOME REGIONAL DISPARITY REGIONAL LOCATION POVERTY RATE WOMEN MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOALS REGIONAL CONFLICTS OIL-PRODUCING REGIONS CENTRAL REGION CENTRAL REGIONS DELTA REGION HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL INEQUALITY REGIONAL INEQUALITIES
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa
2015-08-19T19:09:18Z | 2015-08-19T19:09:18Z | 2015

Horizontal inequalities (HIs) within a country, or inequalities among groups, have been shown to be an important source of violent conflict. Relevant group categorizations include religion, ethnicity, and region. HIs can also be measured in different ways. Ethnicity, language, religion, race, and region are examples of potentially relevant and salient group categorizations. In this paper the authors will review the prevailing HIs and their management in four West African countries - Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, and Nigeria. The report provides some basic facts about these four countries, which vary greatly in area, per capita income, poverty, child mortality rates, and other features. In terms of ethnoreligious demography, it is important to note that all four countries have a highly diverse ethnic population, and three of the four (Ghana, Nigeria, and Cote d’Ivoire) have substantial Christian and Muslim populations. Each of the case study countries has had a relatively turbulent and complex political history in recent decades. The four case study countries present instructive examples of the possible (mis)management of HIs. In this paper the authors analyze the evolution and management of the prevailing HIs in each of the four cases. Section one gives introduction. Section two presents evidence on the evolution and current state of HIs in each country. Section three analyzes the main causes of the prevailing HIs, while section four focuses on the governments’ attitudes, policies, and measures toward HIs. Section five discusses the links between the HIs observed and the political outcomes. Section six draws some conclusions and makes policy recommendations for improved management of HIs in multiethnic developing countries generally, and specifically in four case study countries.

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