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Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note

Incentives, Exports and International Competitiveness in Sub-Saharan Africa : Lessons from the Apparel Industry

ACCOUNTING ADVERSE EFFECTS ADVERSE SHOCK ANTIDUMPING ANTIDUMPING DUTIES APPAREL APPAREL EXPORT APPAREL EXPORTS APPAREL GOODS APPAREL INDUSTRY APPAREL MARKET APPAREL PRODUCERS APPAREL PRODUCTS APPAREL SECTOR APPAREL TRADE AVERAGE EXCHANGE RATE AVERAGE PRICE BENCHMARK BENCHMARKS BENEFICIARIES BENEFICIARY BILATERAL CUMULATION BILATERAL TRADE CAPITAL PER WORKER CAPITAL STOCK COMMERCIAL POLICY COMMON MARKET COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE COMPETITIVE MARKET COMPETITIVE POSITION COUNTRY MARKET COUNTRY MARKETS COUNTRY OF ORIGIN CURRENCY CURRENCY VALUES DEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLES DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DIVERSIFICATION OF EXPORTS DOLLAR VALUE DOMESTIC PRODUCERS DUMPING ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS ECONOMIC COOPERATION ECONOMIC CRISIS ECONOMIC GROWTH EMERGING ECONOMIES EXCHANGE RATE EXOGENOUS FACTORS EXPORT DIVERSIFICATION EXPORT GOODS EXPORT MARKET EXPORT PATTERNS EXPORT PERFORMANCE EXPORT PROCESSING EXPORT PROCESSING ZONES EXPORT REVENUE EXPORT TAX EQUIVALENTS EXPORT VALUE EXPORTER EXPORTERS EXPORTS FINANCIAL CRISIS FOREIGN INVESTORS FOREIGN MARKETS FOREIGN OWNERSHIP FREE ACCESS FREE TRADE FREE TRADE AREA FREE TRADE AREAS GDP GDP DEFLATOR GENERALIZED SYSTEM OF PREFERENCES GLOBAL MARKET GLOBAL MARKETPLACE GLOBAL MARKETS GLOBAL TRADE GOVERNMENT POLICY HOST GOVERNMENTS IMPACT OF SHOCKS IMPORT IMPORT COMPETITION IMPORT MARKETS IMPORT PRICE IMPORT VALUE INDUSTRIALIZATION INSTRUMENT INTERMEDIATE GOODS INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS INTERNATIONAL MARKETS INTERNATIONAL TRADE INVESTMENT CLIMATE ITC LABOR FORCE LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES MARKET COMPETITION MARKET DISRUPTION MARKET DIVERSIFICATION MARKET POSITION MARKET SHARE MARKETING MARKETPLACE MULTILATERAL TARIFF REDUCTION NEGATIVE SHOCK PATTERN OF TRADE PER CAPITA INCOME POSITIVE EXTERNALITIES POVERTY REDUCTION PREFERENTIAL ACCESS PREFERENTIAL RULES OF ORIGIN PREFERENTIAL TARIFF PREFERENTIAL TARIFF TREATMENT PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT PRICE ADJUSTMENT PRICE ADVANTAGE PRICE COMPETITION PRICE ELASTICITY PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND PRICE OF GOODS PROFIT MARGIN PURCHASING PURCHASING POWER PURCHASING POWER PARITY QUOTAS RAPID GROWTH RECESSION REGIONAL MARKET REMOVAL OF QUOTA REMOVAL OF QUOTAS RESTRICTIVE RULES OF ORIGIN RULES OF ORIGIN SALES SHORTFALL SLOWDOWN SPECIALIZATION STATISTICAL ANALYSIS SUPPLIER SUPPLIERS TARIFF PROTECTION TARIFF RATES TARIFF SCHEDULE TAX TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER THIRD MARKETS TOTAL EXPORT TOTAL EXPORT REVENUE TOTAL EXPORT REVENUES TOTAL EXPORTS TOTAL IMPORT TOTAL IMPORTS TOTAL MARKET TRADE AGREEMENTS TRADE BARRIER TRADE BARRIERS TRADE CONCENTRATION TRADE CREATION TRADE DATA TRADE DIVERSION TRADE FLOW DATA TRADE PREFERENCES TRADE RESTRICTIONS TRADE VALUES TRADING TRADING PARTNER TRUST FUND UNEMPLOYMENT VALUE ADDED VALUE OF APPAREL VALUE OF EXPORTS VALUE OF IMPORTS VALUE OF TRADE WAGES WEALTH WEIGHTS WELFARE LOSS WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTOR WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS WORLD TRADE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION WTO
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Washington, DC
Africa | Sub-Saharan Africa
2013-03-15T17:14:53Z | 2013-03-15T17:14:53Z | 2011-05-09

This country-level analysis of international trading patterns examines all sub-Saharan (SSA) countries for which trade data exist. Firm-level analysis is restricted to five countries: Kenya, Mauritius, Madagascar, Swaziland, and Lesotho, for which enterprise surveys are available from the period just before or after the elimination of the final quotas in 2005, under the Agreement for Textiles and Clothing (ATC). Comparators were selected from Asia (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Vietnam), and North Africa (Morocco, Egypt), as benchmarks for the SSA countries, and also to examine their performance relative to normal world trading patterns and volumes. The findings, along with corresponding policy recommendations, are summarized, and key issues are addressed, including which countries adjusted to this with lowest cost; what lessons can the SSA countries draw from this episode in their negotiation and exploitation of trade preferences offered by the US, EU and other potential markets; and how does an SSA country create or attract an export-ready apparel firm. Does the poor performance of sub-Saharan African (SSA) exporters in the period since the removal of quotas in 2005, imply that SSA countries do not have a comparative advantage in apparel, and thus should focus development efforts on other sectors? This report focussed on the evolution of the apparel trade with the removal of ATC quotas. It is important, though, to recognize that African apparel exporters have now been through two negative shocks, the end of trade diversion with the ending of the ATC quota system, and the trade elimination through demand reduction in the US and EU in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2008.

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