A Task Force was set up to recommend changes in the way the Bank affects African capacity, both directly through operations aimed at capacity development, and indirectly through the way it conducts its overall business of development lending and cooperation in Africa. Key messages are emerging, which can inform and stimulate the efforts of all parties in capacity development on the continent-African countries, external partners, and the Bank. The Task Force regards these as a work in progress around which further discussion and reflection are on-going. The five key messages are: 1) capacity is the missing link in Africa's achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); 2) capacity development aims at an effective state, and an engaged society; 3) Africans must take the lead in capacity development and aid management; 4) external partners must engage existing capacity in all African countries; and, 5) achieving capacity outcomes requires independent monitoring. A renewed compact will require the commitment of African leaders and their development partners, to address capacity development more strategically, systematically, and boldly. It will require a frank and comprehensive assessment dealing with the real constraints to building capacity. It will require using and retaining capacity effectively. It will require analytical and financial support for homegrown strategies for capacity development. And it will require the evolution of modalities and practices for partners to support the development of country capacities.