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Wood-Based Biomass Energy Development for Sub-Saharan Africa : Issues and Approaches

ABSENCE OF OXYGEN ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY ACCESS TO ENERGY ACCESS TO ENERGY SERVICES ACCESS TO MODERN ENERGY AFFORESTATION AGRICULTURAL CROPS AGRICULTURAL WASTE AIR AIR POLLUTANTS AIR POLLUTION ALTERNATIVE ENERGY ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES ALTERNATIVE FUELS APPROACH ATMOSPHERE AVAILABILITY BALANCE BIOFUELS BIOGAS BIOMASS BIOMASS BURNING BIOMASS ENERGY BIOMASS ENERGY RESOURCES BIOMASS ENERGY USE BIOMASS FUEL BIOMASS FUELS BIOMASS PRODUCTION BIOMASS SECTOR BIOMASS USE BLACK CARBON BURN FUEL CARBON BIOMASS CARBON CREDITS CARBON DIOXIDE CARBON FINANCE CARBON FUND CARBON MONOXIDE CARBON NEUTRAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION CARBON SINK CARBONIZATION CHARCOAL CHARCOAL PRODUCTION CHRONIC BRONCHITIS CLEAN DEVELOPMENT CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM CLEAN ENERGY CLEAN ENERGY INVESTMENT CLIMATE CLIMATE CHANGE CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION CLIMATIC CONDITIONS CO CO2 COAL COLLECTION SYSTEMS COLORS COMBUSTION COMBUSTION CHAMBER COMBUSTION PROCESS COMMERCIAL ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY CONVERSION OF WOOD COOKING CROP CROP WASTE DEFORESTATION DEGRADED LANDS DEMAND FOR ENERGY DUNG ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC VALUE EFFICIENT STOVES ELECTRIC GRID ELECTRICITY ELECTRIFICATION EMISSION EMISSION REDUCTIONS EMISSIONS EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION EMISSIONS FROM ENERGY EMISSIONS FROM LAND USE EMPLOYMENT ENERGY CONSUMPTION ENERGY DEMAND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT ENERGY DEVELOPMENTS ENERGY EFFICIENCY ENERGY MANAGEMENT ENERGY NEEDS ENERGY OUTLOOK ENERGY PLANNING ENERGY POVERTY ENERGY PRICE ENERGY PROJECT ENERGY RESOURCES ENERGY SECTORS ENERGY SECURITY ENERGY SOURCE ENERGY SOURCES ENERGY STRATEGIES ENERGY STRATEGY ENERGY USE ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ETHANOL EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS EUCALYPTUS TREES EXPLOITATION FOREST FOREST AREA FOREST AREAS FOREST CARBON FOREST COVER FOREST DEGRADATION FOREST ECOSYSTEM FOREST INVESTMENT FOREST LAW FOREST LOSS FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REMOVAL FOREST RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOREST RESOURCES FOREST SERVICE FOREST STOCKS FORESTRY FORESTRY PROJECTS FORESTRY SYSTEMS FORESTS FOSSIL FOSSIL FUEL FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS FOSSIL FUELS FUEL CONSUMPTION FUEL SOURCE FUEL SOURCES FUEL SWITCHING FUEL TYPES FUEL USE FUEL WOOD FUELS FUELWOOD RESOURCES GENERATION GHG GHGS GLOBAL WARMING GREENHOUSE GREENHOUSE GAS GREENHOUSE GASES GRID ELECTRICITY HEAT HOUSEHOLD ENERGY HOUSEHOLD ENERGY USE INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY RESEARCH INVESTMENTS IN ENERGY JATROPHA KEROSENE LAND DEGRADATION LIGHTING LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS LOSS OF FOREST LOW-CARBON METHANE MODERN FUELS NATURAL FORESTS NATURAL RESOURCE NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATURAL RESOURCES NUTRIENT CONTENT OIL OIL EQUIVALENT ORGANIC CARBON OXYGEN PARTICLES PARTICULATE PARTICULATE MATTER PETROLEUM POPULATION GROWTH PRECIPITATION PRICE CHANGES PRIMARY ENERGY PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE PRIMARY ENERGY SUPPLY PRIMARY SOURCE OF ENERGY PRODUCTION OF CHARCOAL PYROLYSIS QUANTITY OF FUEL RAIN RAW MATERIAL REDUCING EMISSIONS RELIABILITY OF SUPPLY RENEWABLE ENERGY RENEWABLE ENERGY ACCESS RENEWABLE ENERGY INVESTMENTS RENEWABLE ENERGY PROGRAM RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS RESIDENTIAL ENERGY RURAL AREAS RURAL ENERGY RURAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT RURAL HOUSEHOLDS RURAL USERS SMOKE SOLID BIOMASS SOLID BIOMASS FUEL SOLID FUELS SOURCE OF ENERGY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SUSTAINABLE FOREST SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT TAX REVENUES TONS OF CARBON TRADITIONAL BIOMASS TRADITIONAL ENERGY SECTOR UNEP URBAN HOUSEHOLDS USE OF BIOMASS VILLAGE LEVELS WIND WOOD BURNING WOOD CONSUMPTION WOOD ENERGY WOOD FUEL WOOD FUELS WOOD SPECIES WOODY BIOMASS
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Sub-Saharan Africa
2017-02-23T17:30:25Z | 2017-02-23T17:30:25Z | 2011-09

Nearly half the world's population and about 81 percent of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) households rely on wood-based biomass energy (fuel wood and charcoal) for cooking. This degree of reliance is far greater than in any other region. While the use of biomass fuels in China, India and much of the developing world has peaked or will do so in the near future, SSA's consumption will either remain at very high levels or even grow over the next few decades. Population growth, coupled with strong urbanization dynamics and relative price changes of alternative fuels, offset the important achievements made over the past decade by significant investments in energy access, rural and urban electrification, off-grid energy developments, and the promotion of alternative energy sources. With increasing economic development, the demand for energy is increasing as well and consumers depend on a broader portfolio of energy sources to satisfy growing energy needs. While electricity and other energy sources are needed to satisfy additional energy needs emerging with economic development, a vast majority of Sub-Saharan African consumers continue to use wood based biomass energy for cooking. Especially electricity is not regarded a suitable alternative for cooking given equipment and use costs. Biomass burning in cook stoves also emits black carbon (BC) as part of visible smoke, which is particulate matter that results from incomplete combustion. Climate science now views BC as the second or third largest warming agent after carbon dioxide, alongside methane. In the case of biomass cooking, the warming effects of BC and the cooling effects of organic carbon that is also emitted during the burning appear to be closely balanced. Given the present uncertainty about the net impact, additional research is currently underway. Black carbon has also an impact at the regional level: it accelerates melting of ice and snow, and contributes to regional pollution which can alter climatic conditions and precipitation patterns over a wide area. This paper advocates that any policy reform should entail a combination of clear rules, transparent enforcement, strong incentives and awareness-creation/capacity development. Key stakeholders and the general public need guidance by way of information campaigns, training, and demonstration projects to ensure that awareness-deficits or false perceptions do not curtail policy implementation. The bureaucratic and administrative barriers e.g. overcomplicated forest management planning requirements, complex fiscal systems and land tenure procedures may inhibit development and thus warrant critical reflection. The regulatory framework needs to integrate externalities in order to promote adequate pricing of charcoal, and thus enhance regional economies.

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