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Provision of Water to the Poor in Africa : Experience with Water Standposts and the Informal Water Sector

ACCOUNTABILITY TO CONSUMERS ALTERNATIVE WATER AVAILABILITY OF WATER BILL COLLECTION BILL COLLECTION RATES BLOCK TARIFF BLOCK TARIFFS BOREHOLES BULK WATER BULK WATER SUPPLY COMMUNITY GROUP COMMUNITY GROUPS COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT COMMUNITY LEADERS COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS CONNECTED HOUSEHOLDS CONNECTION COSTS CONNECTION FEES CONNECTION RATE COST OF WATER COST RECOVERY CUBIC METER CUBIC METRE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DRAIN FINANCIAL VIABILITY FREE WATER GROUNDWATER GROUNDWATER RESOURCES HIGH LEVELS HOURS OF SERVICE HOURS OF WATER HOUSE CONNECTION HOUSE CONNECTIONS HOUSEHOLD CONNECTION HOUSEHOLD CONNECTIONS HOUSEHOLDS INADEQUATE WATER INDIVIDUAL CONNECTIONS LARGE CITIES LOCAL AUTHORITIES LOCAL WATER LOW WATER LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS LOWER LEVEL OF SERVICE MAINTENANCE COSTS METER READING METER READINGS MONITORING PURPOSES NEIGHBORHOOD ASSOCIATIONS NUMBER OF STANDPIPES NUMBER OF WATER NUMBER OF WATER CONNECTIONS OVERSIGHT ROLE PERMITS PIPED WATER POLLUTION POOR URBAN HOUSEHOLDS POPULATION DENSITY POPULATION GROWTH PRICE OF WATER PRIVATE OPERATORS PRIVATE UTILITY PROGRAMS PROVISION OF WATER PUBLIC STANDPIPE PUBLIC STANDPIPES PUBLIC WATER PURCHASE OF WATER QUALITY OF SERVICE RAINWATER RIVERS SANITATION SANITATION SERVICES SERVICE DELIVERY SERVICE PROVIDER SERVICE QUALITY SLUM POPULATION STANDPIPE SERVICE STANDPIPE WATER SUPPLY WATER SURFACE WATER TARIFF LEVELS TRANSPARENCY URBAN AREA URBAN AREAS URBAN GROWTH URBAN HOUSEHOLDS URBAN POPULATIONS URBAN RESIDENTS URBAN UTILITIES URBAN WATER URBANIZATION UTILITIES UTILITY STAFF VALUE OF WATER VOLUME OF WATER WATER COMMISSIONS WATER COMPANY WATER CONSUMERS WATER CONSUMPTION WATER COVERAGE WATER MARKET WATER NETWORKS WATER POINT WATER POINTS WATER PRESSURE WATER PRICES WATER PRODUCTION WATER PROVIDERS WATER QUALITY WATER RESOURCES WATER REVENUES WATER SALES WATER SECTOR WATER SECTOR REFORM WATER SELLERS WATER SERVICE WATER SERVICE DELIVERY WATER SERVICE PROVIDERS WATER SERVICES WATER SOURCE WATER SOURCES WATER STORAGE WATER STORAGE TANKS WATER SUPPLY WATER SUPPLY CHAIN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS WATER SYSTEM WATER TANKER WATER TANKERS WATER TARIFFS WATER USER WATER USERS WATER UTILITIES WATER UTILITY WATER VENDORS WELLS
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Africa | Africa | Africa
2012-03-19T18:41:18Z | 2012-03-19T18:41:18Z | 2010-07-01

Standpipes that dispense water from utilities are the most common alternatives to piped water connections for poor customers in the cities of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fifty-five percent of the unconnected urban population relies on standpipes as their first water source. Other informal water providers include household resellers and a variety of water tankers and vendors, which are the first water source of 1 percent and 3 percent of the urban population, respectively. In the cities studied, the percentage of unconnected households ranges from 12 percent to 86 percent of the population. The percentage of unconnected people covered by standpipes is substantially higher for countries with higher rates of household connection, while the percentage of unconnected people covered by water tankers or water vendors is higher for countries with lower rates of household connection. Water prices in the informal market are much higher than for households with private connections or yard taps. Although standpipes are heavily subsidized by utilities, the prices charged by standpipe operators are closely related to the informal water reseller price. Standpipe management models also affect the informal price of water. For example, the shift from utilities management to delegated management models without complementary regulation or consumer information has often led to declines in service levels and increased prices. Standpipes are not the only or even the most efficient solution in peri-urban areas. Programs that promote private household connections and arrangements that improve pricing and services in the household resale market should also be considered by policy makers.

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