According to the 2010 Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) update household access to sanitation facilities has increased faster in rural Rwanda than in any other country in Sub-Saharan Africa. Almost four million people gained access to improved sanitation between 1990 and 2008. 54 percent of the population currently has access to improved sanitation, up from a baseline of 23 percent in 1990. Most of this progress has been with households upgrading 'unimproved' latrines to improved hygienic ones. While the greatest gains have been in rural areas, improvements in urban sanitation are notable as coverage has increased despite tremendous growth in the urban population. The analysis in the report is structured around these four phases of development, and seeks to identify factors, including the enabling policies, institutions, sector initiatives, and cultural aspects that help explain how Rwanda has made progress towards the sanitation Millennium Development Goal (MDG). While it is clear that the specific context that characterizes Rwanda is unique, the report will share some conclusions from Rwanda's experience for other countries to consider.