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Potential Impact of Climate Change on Resilience and Livelihoods in Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in East Africa

ACACIA AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGRICULTURAL IMPACT AGRICULTURAL IMPACTS AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AGRICULTURAL SOIL AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS AGRICULTURAL TRADE ANIMAL ANIMAL FEED ANIMAL MANURE ANIMAL PRODUCTS ANNUAL RAINFALL APHIDS ASSESSMENT REPORT BANANAS BEANS BIRDS BREEDING BREEDS BURNING CAMELS CARBON SEQUESTRATION CASH CROPS CASH INCOME CASHEW NUTS CASSAVA CATTLE CATTLE OWNERS CEREALS CHICKEN CLIMATE CLIMATE CHANGE CLIMATE VARIABILITY CLIMATES CLIMATIC CONDITIONS CLIMATIC EVENTS COFFEE COMMUNAL LAND CONSERVANCY CONSERVATION COTTON COWPEAS CROP CROP AGRICULTURE CROP DISEASES CROP FAILURE CROP INCOME CROP LAND CROP MODELS CROP PESTS CROP PRODUCTION CROP PRODUCTIVITY CROP RESIDUES CROP SUBSTITUTION CROP SUITABILITY CROP YIELDS CROP-LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS CROPLAND CROPPING CROPPING SEASONS CROPPING SYSTEMS CROPS CULTIVARS CULTIVATION DAILY RAINFALL DAIRY DAIRY PRODUCTION DAM DIET DRAFT ANIMALS DRAFT POWER DRINKING WATER DRY SEASON EAST COAST FEVER ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS EFFECTS OF DROUGHT ELEPHANTS EXOTIC BREEDS EXTENSION SERVICES FAO FARM FARM ACTIVITIES FARM EMPLOYMENT FARM INCOME FARM LAND FARM PRODUCE FARM PRODUCTION FARMER FARMING SYSTEM FARMING SYSTEMS FARMLAND FARMS FEED FEED RESOURCES FEEDS FENCING FERTILISERS FERTILIZER FERTILIZER TREATMENTS FLOCK FLOCK SIZE FLOCKS FLOUR FOOD AID FOOD AVAILABILITY FOOD CONSUMPTION FOOD CROPS FOOD DEFICIT FOOD DEFICITS FOOD INSECURITY FOOD PRODUCTION FOOD SECURITY FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY FOOD SHORTAGES FOREST FOREST PRODUCTS FRUITS GAZELLES GENETIC GOAT GOATS GRAIN GRAIN CROPS GRAIN YIELDS GRAINS GRASSES GRAZING GRAZING AREA GROUNDNUT GROUNDNUTS GROWING SEASON HERBICIDES HERD SIZE HERDERS HERDS HORTICULTURAL CROPS HOUSEHOLD FOOD HUMAN POPULATION HUMAN POPULATION DENSITIES HUMAN POPULATION DENSITY HUMAN POPULATION PRESSURE HYBRID HYBRID SEEDS IMPROVED FEEDING INCOME GENERATION INCOMES INTEGRATION INTERCROPPING ISSUES LAKE LAND FOR LIVESTOCK LAND MANAGEMENT LAND RESOURCES LEGUMES LEOPARDS LIVELIHOODS LIVESTOCK LIVESTOCK COMPONENTS LIVESTOCK DEATHS LIVESTOCK DENSITIES LIVESTOCK DISEASES LIVESTOCK FARMERS LIVESTOCK FARMING LIVESTOCK GRAZING LIVESTOCK HEALTH LIVESTOCK INCOME LIVESTOCK INSURANCE LIVESTOCK INTERACTIONS LIVESTOCK KEEPERS LIVESTOCK KEEPING LIVESTOCK MARKET LIVESTOCK MARKETS LIVESTOCK MOBILITY LIVESTOCK MORTALITY LIVESTOCK NUMBERS LIVESTOCK OWNERS LIVESTOCK OWNERSHIP LIVESTOCK POPULATIONS LIVESTOCK PRICES LIVESTOCK PRODUCT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION LIVESTOCK PRODUCTIVITY LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS LIVESTOCK RESEARCH LIVESTOCK SPECIES LOCAL BUTCHERS LOCAL FARMERS LOSS OF CROPLAND LOW MILK YIELDS MAIZE MANGOES MANURE MARKETING MEAT MIGRATION MILK MILK SALES MILLET MORTALITY RATES NATIONAL PARK NOMADIC PASTORALISM NOMADIC PASTORALISTS ONIONS PARK AUTHORITIES PASTORALISTS PASTURE PASTURES PESTICIDE PIGS PLANT PLANTING PLANTING DATES POPULATION DENSITIES POPULATION GROWTH POULTRY PRODUCE PRODUCTION COST PRODUCTION COSTS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS PRUNING RAINFALL RAINFALL AREAS RAINFED AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESISTANCE TO DROUGHT ROAD NETWORK ROADS ROOTING SAFETY NETS SEED SEEDS SESAME SHEEP SISAL SMALL RUMINANTS SOIL CHARACTERISTICS SOIL FERTILITY SOILS SORGHUM STALL FEEDING SUGAR SUGARCANE SWEET POTATOES TREE TREE CROPS TREES VEGETABLES VEGETATION VETERINARY VETERINARY DEPARTMENT VETERINARY DRUGS VETERINARY SERVICES VILLAGES WATER HARVESTING WATER RESOURCES WATER SHORTAGES WATER STORAGE WILD ANIMALS WILDLIFE WILDLIFE POPULATIONS WOOD WOODLAND WOODLANDS WOOL WORMS ZEBRAS
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | East Africa
2014-01-30T19:31:56Z | 2014-01-30T19:31:56Z | 2013-02-01

Climate-induced livelihood transitions in the agricultural systems of Africa are increasingly likely. A recent study by Jones and Thornton (2009) points to the possibility of such climate-induced livelihood transitions in the mixed crop-livestock rainfed arid-semiarid systems of Africa. These mixed systems cover over one million square kilometers of farmland in West Africa, Eastern Africa, and Southeastern Africa. Their characteristically scant rainfall usually causes crop failure in one out of every six growing seasons and is thus already marginal for crop production. Under many projected climate futures, these systems will become drier and even more marginal for crop production. This will greatly increase the risk of cropping and among the several possible coping and adaptation mechanisms, (e.g. totally abandoning farming, diversification of income-generating activities such as migration and off-farm employment, etc.) agro-pastoralists may alter the relative emphasis that they currently place on the crop and livestock components of the farming system in favor of livestock. There has been only limited analysis on what such climate induced transitions might look like, but it is clear that the implications could be profound in relation to social, environmental, economic and political effects at local and national levels. This study sought to identify areas in the mixed crop-livestock systems in arid and semi-arid Africa where climate change could compel currently sedentary farmers to abandon cropping and to turn to nomadic pastoralism as a livelihood strategy, using East Africa as a case study. While the current study found no direct evidence for the hypothesized extensification across semiarid areas in East Africa, it is clear that systems are in transition with associated changes not necessarily climate driven but linked to broader socio-economic trends. Not surprisingly, many of the households in the piloted sites face a wide array of problems including poverty, food insecurity and inadequate diets which will be aggravated by the looming risks posed by climate change.

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