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The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Integrating Urban Planning and Water Management in Sub-Saharan Africa, Background Report

ACCESS TO INFRASTRUCTURE AIR POLLUTION BASIC SERVICES BUDGETARY RESOURCES BUILDING REGULATIONS CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICTS CENTRAL GOVERNMENTS CITIES CITIZENS CIVIL UNREST CLIMATE CHANGE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT DEMOGRAPHIC GROWTH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES DEVELOPMENT PLANNING DEVELOPMENT PLANS DEVELOPMENT POLICY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES DISASTER PREPAREDNESS DISASTERS DISEASES ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC POLICIES EFFECTIVE ACTION ENACTMENT OF LEGISLATION ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY EXTERNALITIES FOOD SECURITY FOOD SUPPLIES FUTURE POPULATION GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE GOVERNMENT OFFICES GROUNDWATER HEALTH REFORM HEALTH RISKS HOUSING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT HUMAN HEALTH HUMAN RIGHTS HUMAN SETTLEMENT ILLNESS INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION INDUSTRIALIZATION INFECTIOUS DISEASES INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY LACK OF SANITATION LAND DEVELOPMENT LAND TENURE LAND USE LAND-USE PLANNING LARGE CITIES LOCAL AUTHORITIES LOCAL COMMUNITIES LOCAL DEVELOPMENT LOW-INCOME POPULATIONS MALARIA MEGACITIES METROPOLITAN AREAS MIGRANTS MORTALITY MORTALITY RISK MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES MUNICIPALITIES NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NATIONAL GOVERNMENT NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS NATIONAL LEVEL NATURAL DISASTERS NATURAL ENVIRONMENT NUMBER OF PEOPLE OWNERSHIP OF LAND POLICY DEVELOPMENT POLICY LEVEL POLLUTION POPULATION CENSUS POPULATION GROWTH RATES POPULATION INCREASE POPULATION INCREASES POPULATION PRESSURE POPULATION TREND PRACTITIONERS PROGRESS PROVISION OF SERVICES PUBLIC AWARENESS PUBLIC DEBATE PUBLIC HEALTH PUBLIC SERVICE REGULATORY REGIMES RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT RESOURCE ALLOCATION ROADS RURAL AREAS RURAL POPULATION SANITATION SANITATION FACILITIES SCHOOLS SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE SEA LEVEL SECONDARY CITIES SECURITY THREAT SERVICE PROVISION SLUM AREAS SLUMS SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL INEQUALITY SPECIES SUBURBAN AREAS SUBURBS SUSTAINABLE GROWTH TOWN PLANNING TOWNS TRADITIONAL VALUES TRANSPORTATION URBAN URBAN AREA URBAN AREAS URBAN CENTRES URBAN COMMUNITIES URBAN DESIGN URBAN DEVELOPMENT URBAN DRAINAGE URBAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT URBAN ENVIRONMENT URBAN EXPANSION URBAN FRINGE URBAN GROWTH URBAN GROWTH RATES URBAN HEALTH URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE URBAN LAND URBAN MANAGEMENT URBAN MIGRATION URBAN PLANNERS URBAN PLANNING URBAN PLANS URBAN POOR URBAN POPULATION URBAN POPULATION GROWTH URBAN POPULATIONS URBAN POVERTY URBAN SERVICES URBAN SETTLEMENTS URBAN STRUCTURE URBAN WATER URBAN WATER SUPPLY URBANIZATION VULNERABILITY WAR WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT WATER RESOURCES WATER SUPPLIES WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION WORLD POPULATION
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa
2013-02-07T20:07:25Z | 2013-02-07T20:07:25Z | 2012-01

This paper is one of a series of analytical studies commissioned by the World Bank's Africa Region and Water Anchor which are intended to identify and address the future challenges of urban water supply, sanitation and flood management in Sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) cities and towns. Following the terms of reference for the assignment, and as indicated by its title, the paper is directed at understanding and describing the linkages and interdependencies between water management and water security on the one hand, and urbanization, urban planning and development on the other. The paper is structured in six sections. Section one presents an overview of urbanization trends in SSA. This is followed by a discussion in Section two of what can be seen as the corollary of the unprecedented urban population growth now occurring and projected for SSA, large-scale urban expansion, involving potentially massive increases in urban land cover. This expansion has implications, also discussed in section two, for the internal structuring of African cities and towns, and for the planning and development of the overall urban form which is resulting, as well as for the environmental risks cities and towns face now and into the future. This 'poor urban planning' in the present-day has its roots in the inherited practices of colonial-era planning theories and practices, which are described in section three. These still resonate, as discussed in section four, which discusses key constituent aspects of contemporary planning systems in Africa, as illustrated by a number of case studies. In section five, the focus shifts to the current institutional experience with urban water management, again with a number of good practice cases provided. The author then turn in the concluding section seven to the key concern of this issues paper: that of integrating urban planning and water management as the Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) approach emerges- or, perhaps to put it better, of finding ways in which such integration can promote the emergence of IUWM. This is a necessary but difficult task, complicated by the reality that, as seen in the quote above, IUWM requires quite considerable coordination within the water sector alone. Moreover, our preceding analysis demonstrates, and this is the core argument of this paper, that seen from the side of the overall urban planning system, the deficiencies, decline and the delegitimizing of the 'traditional' planning system and practices in SSA, and the theory which underpins them, along with the failure to modernize them in a consistent fashion, has led, if anything, to greater fragmentation in the planning and managing of urban development. Land use planning and infrastructure (and other sector) planning, including water, typically occur in an uncoordinated fashion. This makes planning adequately for large-scale urban growth and expansion that much more difficult.

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