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Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study

Petroleum Product Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa : Comparative Efficiency Analysis of 12 Countries

ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY ACCIDENTS AIRPORT ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT MODES AVAILABILITY AVIATION FUEL BALANCE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS BARRIERS TO ENTRY BOILERS BORDER TRADE BUS BUS OPERATORS CAPITAL INVESTMENTS CARRIERS CARS COAL COASTAL TANKER CONCESSION CONGESTION CONSUMPTION OF PETROLEUM CONTINGENT LIABILITIES COSTS OF FUEL CRUDE OIL CRUDE OIL PIPELINE CRUDE PRICE CRUDE PRICES DEMAND FOR AVIATION DEMAND FOR PETROLEUM PRODUCTS DEPOT DEPOTS DIESEL DIESEL FUEL DISTRIBUTION INFRASTRUCTURE DOMESTIC CRUDE OIL DOMESTIC MARKET DOWNSTREAM OIL ECONOMIC REGULATION ECONOMIES OF SCALE EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT ELECTRICITY EXPORT MARKET FAIR FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE FLEET MANAGEMENT FLEET OPERATORS FREE GASOLINE FREIGHT FREIGHT SECTOR FREIGHT TRANSPORT FUEL FUEL ADULTERATION FUEL COSTS FUEL OIL FUEL PRICES FUEL PROCUREMENT FUEL QUALITY FUEL SHORTAGE FUEL SHORTAGES FUEL SPECIFICATIONS FUEL SUPPLY FUEL TAXES FUELS GAS PROCESSING PLANT GASOLINE GASOLINE COST GASOLINE PRICES GASOLINE PRODUCTION GASOLINE PUMP PRICES GRID POWER GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT HIGHER OIL PRICES HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES HUB AIRPORTS INSPECTION INTERNATIONAL MARKETS INTERNATIONAL OIL PRICES INVENTORY KEROSENE KEROSENE CONSUMPTION LAND TRANSPORT LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS LIQUID FUELS LONG-DISTANCE LUBRICANTS MARKET CONCENTRATION MARKET INFORMATION MARKET PRICES MARKET SHARE MARKET STRUCTURE MARKETING MILLION BARRELS MINERAL MONOPOLIES MONOPOLY NATIONAL OIL NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS PROCESSING NATURAL MONOPOLIES NATURAL RESOURCES OIL AND GAS OIL COMPANY OIL DEMAND OIL INDUSTRY OIL MARKETING OIL MARKETING COMPANIES OIL PIPELINE OIL PRICE OIL PRICES OIL PRODUCER OIL PRODUCTS OIL REFINERIES OIL SECTOR OIL SUPPLY OIL-IMPORTING COUNTRIES PETROLEUM PETROLEUM GAS PETROLEUM INDUSTRY PETROLEUM MARKET PETROLEUM PRODUCT CONSUMPTION PETROLEUM PRODUCT PRICES PETROLEUM PRODUCT SUPPLY PETROLEUM PRODUCTS PETROLEUM REFINERIES PETROLEUM SECTOR PETROLEUM SUPPLY PIPELINE PIPELINE CAPACITY PIPELINE COMPANY PIPELINE TRANSPORT PIPELINES PORT OF ENTRY POWER POWER GENERATION POWER PLANT POWER SECTOR POWER SHORTAGES PRICE ADJUSTMENT PRICE CEILINGS PRICE CONTROL PRICE INCREASES PRICE LEVELS PRICE OF OIL PRICE REGULATION PRICE SPIKES PRICE STABILIZATION PRICE STRUCTURE PRICE TRENDS PRICE VOLATILITY PRICING POLICIES PRICING POLICY PRIMARY SOURCES PRIVATE INVESTMENT PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE VEHICLES PRODUCT MARKETS PRODUCTS PIPELINE PROFIT MARGINS PUBLIC TRANSPORT PURCHASING RAIL RAIL FREIGHT RAIL INFRASTRUCTURE RAIL LINE RAIL TRANSPORT RAIL USE RAILWAY RAILWAYS REFINED PRODUCTS REFINERY REFINERY CAPACITY REFINING RESIDUAL FUEL RESIDUAL FUEL OIL RETAIL RETAIL MARKETING RETAIL PRICE RETAIL PRICES RETAILING ROAD ROAD CONDITIONS ROAD DAMAGE ROAD IMPROVEMENT ROAD TRANSPORT ROADS ROUTE ROUTES SALE SALES SALES ARRANGEMENTS SPOT PRICE STOCK LEVELS STOCK MANAGEMENT STOCKS STORAGE CAPACITY STORAGE FACILITIES SULFUR SUPPLIER SUPPLIERS SUPPLY CHAIN SUPPLY CONTRACT SUPPLY EFFICIENCY SURPLUS TAX TAX REVENUES TRAFFIC TRAFFIC SAFETY TRAINS TRANSIT TRANSPARENCY TRANSPORT TRANSPORT ACTIVITIES TRANSPORT CAPACITY TRANSPORT COSTS TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE TRANSPORT MODE TRANSPORT MODES TRANSPORT SECTOR TRANSPORT SERVICES TRUCKS TRUE UNDERGROUND UTILITIES VEHICLE WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTORS WHOLESALE MARKETING WHOLESALERS WORLD MARKET WORLD OIL PRICES
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Washington, DC
Africa | Sub-Saharan Africa
2012-03-19T10:12:24Z | 2012-03-19T10:12:24Z | 2011-01-01

Petroleum products are used across the entire economy in every country. Gasoline and diesel are the primary fuels used in road transport. Oil is used in power generation, accounting for eleven percent of total electricity generated in Africa in 2007. Adequate and reliable supply of transport services and electricity in turn are essential for economic development. Households use a variety of petroleum products: kerosene is used for lighting, cooking, and heating; liquefied petroleum gas for cooking and heating; and gasoline and diesel for private vehicles as well as captive power generation. Prices users pay for these petroleum products have macroeconomic and microeconomic consequences. At the macroeconomic level, oil price levels can affect the balance of payments, gross domestic product (GDP), and, where fuel prices are subsidized, government budgets, contingent liabilities, or both. At the microeconomic level, higher oil prices lower effective household income in three ways. First, households pay more for petroleum products they consume directly. Seventy percent of Sub-Saharan Africans are not yet connected to electricity; most without access rely on kerosene for lighting. Second, higher oil prices increase the prices of all other goods that have oil as an intermediate input. The most significant among them for the poor in low-income countries is food, on which the poor spend a disproportionately high share of total household expenditures. Food prices increase because of higher transport costs and higher prices of such inputs to agriculture as fertilizers and diesel used for operating tractors and irrigation pumps. For the urban poor that use public transport, higher transport costs also decrease their effective income. Third, to the extent that higher oil prices lower GDP growth, household income is reduced.

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