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Macro and Micro Perspectives of Growth and Poverty in Africa

ACCESS TO INFRASTRUCTURE ACCESS TO MARKETS AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT ANNUAL CHANGE ANNUAL GROWTH ANNUAL GROWTH RATE BLACK MARKET BLACK MARKET PREMIUM BUREAUCRACY BUREAUCRATIC QUALITY CALORIC INTAKE CASH CROPS CHANGES IN POVERTY CHILD MORTALITY CIVIL SOCIETY CIVIL WAR COMMUNITY LIFE CONFLICT CONSUMPTION BASKET CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURES CONSUMPTION GROWTH CONSUMPTION MEASURE CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION POVERTY CORRUPTION COUNTRY ESTIMATES COVARIATE SHOCKS DATA SETS DECLINE IN POVERTY DECOMPOSABLE POVERTY DECOMPOSABLE POVERTY MEASURES DEMOCRATIC ACCOUNTABILITY DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS DEVELOPMENT REPORT DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH DISTRIBUTIONAL CHANGE DISTRIBUTIONAL EFFECTS DISTRIBUTIONAL OUTCOMES DROP IN POVERTY DROUGHT ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES ECONOMIC DECLINE ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC LITERATURE ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE ECONOMIC POLICIES ECONOMIC POLICY ECONOMIC REFORM ECONOMIC REFORMS ECONOMIC STAGNATION ECONOMICS EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE EXCHANGE RATE EXCHANGE RATE POLICY EXPLAINING CHANGES EXTERNAL SHOCKS FARMERS FOOD CONSUMPTION FOOD CROP FOOD CROP PRODUCERS FOOD EXPENDITURES GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS GINI INDEX GOOD GOVERNANCE GROWTH ELASTICITY GROWTH PATH GROWTH PERFORMANCE GROWTH PROSPECTS GROWTH RATES GROWTH REGRESSIONS HEADCOUNT POVERTY HEADCOUNT RATIO HIGH INEQUALITY HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION HOUSEHOLD DATA HOUSEHOLD INCOME HOUSEHOLD SURVEY HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INCIDENCE OF POVERTY INCOME INCOME DISTRIBUTION INCOME DISTRIBUTIONS INCOME GROUPS INCOME GROWTH INCOME INEQUALITY INCOME POVERTY INCREASING INEQUALITY INEQUALITY LEVELS INEQUALITY MEASURES INFLATION RATE INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTIONAL MEASURES INSTITUTIONAL QUALITY INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAND DISTRIBUTION LIFE EXPECTANCY LIVING STANDARDS LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES MACRO POLICY MACROECONOMIC FRAMEWORK MACROECONOMIC POLICIES MACROECONOMIC POLICY MACROECONOMIC REFORMS MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES MALNUTRITION MARGINAL RETURNS MEAN EXPENDITURE MEAN INCOMES MEASURING INCOME INEQUALITY NATIONAL ACCOUNTS NOMADIC POPULATION PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE POLICY CHANGE POLICY CHANGES POLICY INSTRUMENT POLICY MESSAGES POLICY REFORMS POLICY RESEARCH POLICY STANCE POLICY VOLATILITY POLITICAL ECONOMY POLITICAL INSTABILITY POLITICAL REFORMS POLITICAL STABILITY POOR POOR GROWTH POOR HOUSEHOLDS POOR PEOPLE POOR PERFORMANCE POOR RURAL HOUSEHOLDS POPULATION SHARE POVERTY ASSESSMENTS POVERTY CHANGE POVERTY CHANGES POVERTY DATA POVERTY DYNAMICS POVERTY ESTIMATES POVERTY INCIDENCE POVERTY INCREASE POVERTY INCREASES POVERTY INDEX POVERTY INDICATORS POVERTY INDICES POVERTY LINE POVERTY LINES POVERTY MEASURE POVERTY MEASURES POVERTY OUTCOMES POVERTY REDUCING POVERTY REDUCTION POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGIES POVERTY SEVERITY POVERTY-REDUCING POLICIES PRIMARY SCHOOL PRO-POOR PRO-POOR GROWTH PRO-POOR GROWTH INDEX PUBLIC POLICY PURCHASING POWER PURCHASING POWER PARITY REDUCED POVERTY REDUCING POVERTY RELATIVE IMPORTANCE RELATIVE PRICES RESOURCE ALLOCATION RISK MANAGEMENT RULE OF LAW RURAL RURAL ACTIVITY RURAL AREAS RURAL COMMUNITIES RURAL CONSUMERS RURAL POOR RURAL POVERTY RURAL PRODUCERS RURAL URBAN NATIONAL SCHOOLING SECTORAL POLICIES SIGNIFICANT IMPACT SMALL FARMERS SOCIAL CAPITAL SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT SUBSISTENCE SUSTAINABLE POVERTY SUSTAINABLE POVERTY REDUCTION TRADE LIBERALIZATION UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION URBAN AREAS WAR WELFARE INDICATOR WELFARE MEASURE WELFARE MEASURES
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Washington, DC: World Bank
Africa | Africa
2014-02-26T20:51:08Z | 2014-02-26T20:51:08Z | 2003-09

This article reviews trends in poverty, economic policies, and growth in a sample of African countries during the 1990s, drawing on the better household data now available. Experiences have varied. Some countries have seen sharp drops in income poverty, whereas others have witnessed marked increases. In some countries overall economic growth has been pro-poor and in others not. But the aggregate numbers hide systematic distributional effects. Taking both macro and micro perspectives of growth and poverty in Africa, the article draws four key conclusions. First, economic policy reforms (improving macroeconomic balances and liberalizing markets) appear conducive to reducing poverty. Second, market connectedness is crucial to enable participation in the gains from economic growth. Some regions and households by virtue of their remoteness were left behind when growth picked up. Third, education and access to land emerge as key private endowments to help households benefit from new economic opportunities. Finally, rainfall variations and ill health have profound effects on poverty outcomes, underscoring the significance of social risk management in poverty reduction strategies in Africa.

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