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Review of Urban Air Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa Region : Air Quality Profile of SSA Countries

ACCIDENTS ACID ACIDIFICATION ADVERSE IMPACT AEROSOLS AGENDA 21 AIR AIR MONITORING AIR POLLUTANT AIR POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS AIR POLLUTANTS AIR POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION CONTROL AIR POLLUTION CONTROL REGULATIONS AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS AIR POLLUTION IMPACTS AIR POLLUTION INFORMATION AIR POLLUTION MONITORING AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS AIR QUALITY AIR QUALITY DATA AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES AIR QUALITY INFORMATION AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING AIR QUALITY STANDARDS AMBIENT AIR AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS AROMATICS ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION AUDITS AUTOMOBILE AUTOMOBILES AVERAGE TRIP LENGTHS BENZENE BIKES BIOLOGICAL SPECIES BIOMASS BLACK CARBON BOILERS BUSES CAI CARBON CARBON MONOXIDE CARS CATALYTIC CONVERTER CH4 CLEAN AIR CLEAN AIR INITIATIVE CLEANER FUELS CLIMATE CLIMATE CHANGE CO CO2 COAL COMBUSTION CONCENTRATIONS OF POLLUTANTS CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE COPPER COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS DESERTIFICATION DEVELOPED COUNTRIES DIESEL DIESEL EXHAUST DIESEL FUEL DIOXINS DNA DRIVING ECONOMIC ACTIVITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS EMISSION EMISSION CHARGES EMISSION CONTROL EMISSION CONTROLS EMISSION DATA EMISSION ESTIMATES EMISSION PERMITS EMISSION REDUCTION EMISSION REDUCTION TARGETS EMISSION STANDARD EMISSION STANDARDS EMISSIONS EMISSIONS CONTROL EMISSIONS FACTORS EMISSIONS INVENTORIES EMISSIONS STANDARDS ENERGY CONSUMPTION ENERGY PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY EUTROPHICATION EVAPORATION EXHAUST EMISSIONS FINANCIAL RESOURCES FINE PARTICLES FOREST FOREST FIRES FORMALDEHYDE FOSSIL FUELS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE FREE GASOLINE FUEL FUEL OIL FUEL QUALITY FUEL STANDARDS FUEL USE FUELS GASOLINE GHGS GREENHOUSE GREENHOUSE GAS GREENHOUSE GASES HC HUMAN HEALTH HYBRID VEHICLES HYDROCARBONS INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS INSPECTION INTERSECTIONS IPCC LANDFILLS MANGANESE METHANE MINES MOBILE SOURCES MONITORING EQUIPMENT MONTREAL MONTREAL PROTOCOL MONTREAL PROTOCOL ON SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE THE OZONE LAYER MOTOR CYCLES NH3 NICKEL NITROGEN NITROGEN DIOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES NO2 NOX O3 OLEFINS OPEN BURNING ORGANIC POLLUTANTS OZONE OZONE DEPLETION OZONE LAYER PAINTS PARTICLE PARTICLES PARTICULATE PARTICULATE MATTER PESTICIDES PETROLEUM CONSUMPTION PETROLEUM PRODUCTS PH PM10 POLICE POLICY MAKERS POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS POLLUTANT EMISSIONS POLLUTERS POLLUTION CONTROL POLLUTION EMISSION POLLUTION LEVELS POLLUTION PREVENTION POLLUTION PROBLEMS POPULATION GROWTH POWER PLANT POWER PLANTS PP PRECIPITATION PUBLIC HEALTH PUBLIC TRANSPORT PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM ROAD ROADS SMOKE SO2 SOCIAL COSTS SOLAR IRRADIANCE SOX STATIONARY SOURCE STATIONARY SOURCES STRATOSPHERIC OZONE STYRENE SULPHUR SULPHUR DIOXIDE SUSPENDED DUST SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TAXI DRIVERS TEMPERATURE TOLUENE TRAFFIC TRAFFIC FLOW TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION TRANSPARENCY TRANSPORT TRANSPORT SECTOR TRIP TRUCKS TRUE UNEP UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME URBAN AIR URBAN AIR POLLUTION URBAN AIR QUALITY URBAN AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT URBAN AREAS URBAN MOBILITY URBAN TRANSPORT VEHICLE VEHICLE DRIVERS VEHICLE EMISSION VEHICLE EMISSIONS VEHICLE FLEET VEHICLE FLEETS VEHICLES VOC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WASTE MANAGEMENT WILDLIFE WIND WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Sub-Saharan Africa
2017-06-02T19:50:07Z | 2017-06-02T19:50:07Z | 2012

In Africa, urban outdoor air pollution is responsible for an estimated 49,000 premature deaths annually with indoor use of solid fuels being responsible for eight times this value, the main burden being borne by Sub Saharan African countries. Air pollution, outdoor and indoor, affects the health and life chances of millions of people in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA)every day. There is a link between air pollution and poverty since poor people are exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants and tend to suffer disproportionately from the effects of deteriorating air quality (AQ). Children in cities exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants will more often develop respiratory ailments which prevent them from developing and learning well. As a consequence they will suffer in adult life from low levels of qualifications and skills. The implication of poorly educated children is not only a reduction of quality of their lives but also an obstacle for the economic development of a country as a whole. Rapid urbanization means increase in motorization and economic activity which in turn leads to increased air pollution if countermeasures are not taken. In view these linkages addressing urban AQ in SSA is particularly important. Air pollution in Sub Saharan cities appears to be on the rise with respect to many key pollutants. In some cities where monitoring has been performed levels of air pollution exceed World Health Organization recommended guidelines. The main cause of urban air pollution is the use of fossil fuels in transport, power generation, industry and domestic sectors. In addition, the burning of firewood, agricultural and animal waste also contributes to pollution levels. Pollutant emissions have direct and indirect effects with a wide range of impacts on human health, ecosystems, agriculture and materials. There is a growing need to determine the state of urban AQ and the challenges posed to solve it and identify the most effective measures to protect human health and the environment. Learning from experience and successes in urban AQ management (AQM) from other countries can assists in the formulation and implementation of strategies to achieve better AQ in Sub Saharan Africa. This report compiles the information provided by the 25countries in a harmonized way and gives an in-depth review of AQ in SSA with AQ profile of each country, presenting the country's main current urban AQ issues, emissions standards, ongoing projects, lessons learned from good/bad practices. It was attempted to compile this information also for additional SSA countries from available publications and internet sources.

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