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Gender and Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa : Are Women Disadvantaged?

ACCESS TO CAPITAL ACCESS TO CREDIT ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE ACCESS TO FINANCE ACCESS TO FINANCIAL SERVICES ACCESS TO FORMAL FINANCE ACCESS TO SAVINGS ACCOUNTING BANK ACCOUNTS BANK LOAN BANK OFFICE BANKING SERVICES BANKING SYSTEM BANKS BARRIER BIASES BROAD ACCESS BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT CAPITAL ACCUMULATION CAPITAL ALLOCATION CAPITAL NEEDS CITIES COLLEGE DEGREE COUNTRY FIXED EFFECTS CREDIT CONSTRAINTS CREDIT HISTORY DEBT DESCRIPTION ECONOMETRICS ECONOMIC GROWTH EDUCATION LEVEL EDUCATION LEVELS EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT EMPLOYMENT EMPLOYMENT STATUS ENTERPRISE ACCESS ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT ENTRY BARRIERS EXCHANGE RATES EXTERNAL FINANCING FEMALE FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP FEMALES FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS FINANCIAL EXCLUSION FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FINANCIAL LITERACY FINANCIAL MARKET FINANCIAL MARKETS FINANCIAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL SECTOR POLICY FINANCIAL SERVICE FINANCIAL SERVICE PROVIDERS FINANCIAL SERVICES FINANCIAL SUPPORT FINANCING ARRANGEMENTS FINANCING OBSTACLES FIRM GROWTH FIXED ASSET FLOW OF CAPITAL FOREIGN OWNERS FOREIGN OWNERSHIP FORMAL BANK FORMAL BANKING FORMAL CREDIT FORMAL FINANCE FORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTION FORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FORMAL FINANCIAL SECTOR FORMAL FINANCIAL SERVICE FORMAL FINANCIAL SERVICES GENDER GENDER BIAS GENDER DIFFERENCE GENDER DIFFERENCES GENDER DISCRIMINATION GENDER EQUALITY GENDER GAP GENDER GAP IN ACCESS GENDER GAPS GENDERS GEOGRAPHIC BARRIERS GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD HEADS OF HOUSEHOLD HEADS OF HOUSEHOLDS HOUSEHOLD ACCESS HOUSEHOLD INCOME HOUSEHOLDS HUMAN CAPITAL HUSBANDS INCOME DISTRIBUTION INCOMES INEQUALITY INFLATION INFLATION RATE INFORMAL ECONOMIES INFORMAL FINANCE INFORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS INFORMAL FINANCING INHABITANTS INHERITANCE INSURANCE INTEREST RATE INTERNATIONAL BANK INVESTMENT CLIMATE INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES LABOR MARKET LACK OF ACCESS LEGAL CONSTRAINTS LEGAL INVESTMENT LIMITED ACCESS LOAN LOAN APPLICATIONS MACROECONOMICS MARITAL STATUS MARKET ECONOMY MARRIED MEN MARRIED WOMEN MFIS MICROCREDIT MICROFINANCE MOBILE PHONE MOBILE PHONES MONEY LENDERS NEW BUSINESS OBSTACLES TO GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN OUTREACH OVERDRAFT OWNERSHIP RIGHTS PENSION PROPERTY RIGHT PROPRIETORSHIP PROPRIETORSHIPS RURAL AREA RURAL AREAS SAVINGS SERVICES SEX SMALL BUSINESSES SMALL ENTERPRISE SMALL TOWNS SOURCE OF INCOME START-UP START-UP CAPITAL SUPPLY OF FINANCE TAX TAX LIABILITY TRANSITION ECONOMIES VENTURE CAPITAL WIFE WILL WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS WORKING CAPITAL
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Africa | Africa | Africa
2012-03-19T18:00:35Z | 2012-03-19T18:00:35Z | 2011-02-01

This paper assesses whether there is a gender gap in the use of financial services by businesses and individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa. The authors do not find evidence of gender discrimination or lower inherent demand for financial services by enterprises with female ownership participation or by female individuals when key characteristics of the enterprises or individuals are taken into account. In the case of enterprises, they explain this finding with selection bias -- females are less likely to run sole proprietorships than men, and firms with female ownership participation are smaller, but more likely to innovate. In the case of individuals, the lower use of formal financial services by women can be explained by gender gaps in other dimensions related to the use of financial services, such as their lower level of income and education, and by their household and employment status.

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