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Striving for Better Jobs : The Challenge of Informality in the Middle East and North Africa

ACCOUNTING ACTIVE LABOR ACTIVE LABOR MARKET ACTIVE LABOR MARKET PROGRAM ACTIVE LABOR MARKET PROGRAMS AGE GROUP AGE GROUPS ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENT ANNUAL LEAVE ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION AVERAGE WAGE AVERAGE WAGES BARGAINING BARGAINING POWER BARRIERS TO ENTRY BENEFICIARIES CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS CIVIL SERVICE COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS COMPLIANCE COSTS CORPORATE TAX RATE CORPORATE TAX RATES COUNTRY COMPARISONS CREATING OPPORTUNITIES CROSS-SECTIONAL DATA DEBT DISCUSSIONS DISMISSAL DISTORTED INCENTIVES DRIVERS EARLY RETIREMENT EARNING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC POLICIES ECONOMIC RISKS ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN ECONOMIC THEORY ECONOMICS EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT EDUCATIONAL LEVEL EMPLOYABILITY EMPLOYEE EMPLOYMENT EMPLOYMENT COMPOSITION EMPLOYMENT GROWTH EMPLOYMENT LIKELIHOOD EMPLOYMENT OUTCOMES EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS EMPLOYMENT PROTECTION LEGISLATION EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP EMPLOYMENT SECURITY EMPLOYMENT SIZE EMPLOYMENT STATUS ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE ENTREPRENEURSHIP EXTERNALITIES FEMALE EMPLOYMENT FINANCIAL CRISIS FINDING EMPLOYMENT FINDING JOBS FIRM ENTRY FIRM LEVEL FIRM SIZE FIXED COSTS FORMAL LABOR MARKET GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION GOVERNMENT REVENUE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT HEALTH INSURANCE HIGH WAGE HOLDING HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INCOME INCOME SECURITY INCOME SUPPORT INDIRECT LABOR COSTS INFORMAL ECONOMIES INFORMAL ECONOMY INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT INFORMAL SECTOR INNOVATION INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS INSURANCE DESIGN INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN INTERNATIONAL BANK INTERNATIONAL FINANCE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS INVESTING INVESTMENT CLIMATE INVESTMENT INSTRUMENTS JOB CREATION JOB DURATION JOB LOSS JOB SEARCH JOB SEARCH ASSISTANCE JOB SECURITY JOBS LABOR CONTRACTS LABOR COST LABOR DEMAND LABOR FORCE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION LABOR LAWS LABOR LEGISLATION LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES LABOR MARKET REFORM LABOR MARKET REGULATION LABOR MARKET REGULATIONS LABOR MARKETS LABOR MOBILITY LABOR PRODUCTIVITY LABOR REGULATIONS LABOR SUPPLY LABOUR LEVEL PLAYING FIELD LIVING STANDARDS LOCAL CURRENCY MALE WORKERS MARKET SEGMENTATIONS MINIMUM CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS MINIMUM WAGE MINIMUM WAGES MONETARY FUND NATURAL RESOURCES NEW ENTRANTS NPL OCCUPATIONAL RISKS OCCUPATIONS OLD-AGE PENSION ON-THE-JOB TRAINING PENSION REFORM PENSION SYSTEM PENSION SYSTEMS PENSIONS POLITICAL ECONOMY PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT PRIVATE ENTERPRISE PRIVATE INVESTMENT PRIVATE INVESTMENTS PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR JOBS PRIVATE SECTOR WORKERS PRIVATE SECTORS PRODUCTIVE FIRMS PROPERTY TAXES PROTECTING WORKERS PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYMENT PUBLIC SECTOR JOB PUBLIC SECTOR JOBS PUBLIC SERVICES REGULATORY AUTHORITIES REGULATORY BARRIERS REGULATORY FRAMEWORK REGULATORY SYSTEM REMUNERATIVE EMPLOYMENT RENTS RETIREMENT RETURNS REVENUE SOURCES RISK MANAGEMENT RURAL EMPLOYMENT SAFETY SAFETY NET SAFETY NETS SALARIED WORKERS SAVINGS SAVINGS BEHAVIOR SAVINGS SCHEMES SEGMENTATIONS SELF EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SECTORS SEVERANCE PAY SOCIAL INSURANCE SYSTEM SOCIAL INSURANCE SYSTEMS SOCIAL NETWORKS SOCIAL POLICIES SOCIAL PROTECTION SOCIAL SECURITY SOCIAL SERVICES STABLE JOBS TAX TAX OBLIGATIONS TAXATION TOTAL EMPLOYMENT TRADE UNIONS TRAINING PROGRAMS TRANSACTION TRANSACTION COSTS TRANSPARENCY TRANSPORT TRIPARTITE UNEMPLOYED UNEMPLOYED WORKERS UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE UNEMPLOYMENT RATES UNPAID WORKERS URBAN WORKERS WAGE DISTRIBUTION WAGE EMPLOYMENT WAGE FLOORS WAGE GAP WAGE RIGIDITIES WITHDRAWAL WORKER WORKERS WORKING CONDITIONS WORKING HOURS WORKING POOR YOUNG WORKERS
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Middle East and North Africa | North Africa | Middle East
2014-09-02T16:16:36Z | 2014-09-02T16:16:36Z | 2014-08-26

Economic growth has been sustained for many years pre-crisis in the region, but this has not resulted in the creation of an adequate number of jobs and has succeeded, at best, in generating low-quality, informal jobs. The report addresses one margin of exclusion: informal employment and the vulnerabilities and lack of opportunities associated with it. The report analyzes the constraints that prevent informal workers from becoming formal and discusses policy options to effectively address these constraints. This report looks at informality through a human development angle and focuses particularly on informal employment. Informality is a complex phenomenon, comprising unpaid workers and workers without social security or health insurance coverage, small or micro-firms that operate outside the regulatory framework and large registered firms that may partially evade corporate taxes and social security contributions. The first section provides a detailed profile of informal workers in the region. The second section describes the characteristics of informality in micro-firms that operate outside the regulatory framework and in larger firms that do not fully comply with social security contribution requirements and tax obligations. The third section presents informality and the firm. The fourth section focuses on informality: choice or exclusion? The fifth section discusses policy options for effectively expanding coverage of health insurance and pension systems and promoting the creation of better quality jobs.

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