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Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper

Why Trade Facilitation Matters to Africa

ABSOLUTE VALUE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AGGREGATE IMPORTS AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AGRICULTURAL TRADE AGRICULTURE AIR ANTI-DUMPING DUTIES APPAREL APPAREL EXPORTS AVERAGE COSTS BARRIERS TO TRADE BENCHMARK BILATERAL TRADE BORDER CROSSING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT CAR CARRIERS CARTELS CITY TRANSPORT COMPETITIVE MARKETS COMPLIANCE COSTS CONSUMER PREFERENCES CURRENCY CUSTOMS CUSTOMS ADMINISTRATIONS CUSTOMS CLEARANCE CUSTOMS OFFICIALS CUSTOMS PROCEDURES DEBT DECISION MAKING DEVELOPED COUNTRIES DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DISTRIBUTION COSTS DOMESTIC INDUSTRY DOMESTIC MARKET DOMESTIC PRODUCERS DUMPING ECONOMIC COOPERATION ECONOMIC CRISIS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC INTEGRATION ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE ECONOMIC RESEARCH ECONOMICS ECONOMIES OF SCALE ELASTICITY EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATIONS EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ENVIRONMENTAL EXPORT COSTS EXPORT DIVERSIFICATION EXPORT GROWTH EXPORT MARKETS EXPORT OPPORTUNITIES EXPORT PERFORMANCE EXPORT PRICES EXPORT PROCEDURES EXPORT REVENUE EXPORT SHARE EXPORT SHARES EXPORTERS FINANCIAL CRISES FINANCIAL CRISIS FIXED COSTS FOREIGN INVESTMENT FOREIGN MARKET FOREIGN MARKETS FOREIGN TRADE FREE TRADE FREE TRADE AREA FREIGHT FREIGHT COSTS FUEL GDP GLOBAL TRADE GOVERNMENT REGULATION GRAVITY EQUATION GRAVITY ESTIMATES GRAVITY MODEL GRAVITY MODELS HARMONIZATION OF RULES HIGH TRANSPORT HIGHWAY HIGHWAY NETWORK HIGHWAYS IMPACT OF TRADE IMPERFECT COMPETITION IMPORT COSTS IMPORT PROCEDURES IMPORT PROCESS IMPORT REGIME IMPORT TARIFFS IMPORT VALUES INCOME INCREASING RETURNS INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS INFRASTRUCTURES INLAND TRANSPORT INPUT USE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS INTERNATIONAL TRADE INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT INVESTMENT FLOWS ITC LOW TARIFFS MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS MANUFACTURING PRODUCTIVITY MARITIME TRANSPORT MARKET ACCESS MARKET STRUCTURE MULTILATERAL NEGOTIATIONS MULTILATERAL TRADE NON-TARIFF BARRIERS OIL OPEN ECONOMIES OPENNESS OPPORTUNITY COSTS PATTERN OF TRADE PATTERNS OF TRADE POLITICAL ECONOMY PORT OF ENTRY PREFERENTIAL ACCESS PREFERENTIAL AGREEMENTS PREFERENTIAL BASIS PREFERENTIAL MARKET ACCESS PREFERENTIAL TARIFF PREFERENTIAL TRADE PREFERENTIAL TRADE AGREEMENTS PREFERENTIAL TRADE ARRANGEMENTS PRICE DIFFERENTIALS PRICE INCREASES PRIMARY FACTORS PRODUCTION COSTS PRODUCTION PROCESSES PROFIT MARGIN PROPERTY RIGHTS PROTECTIONIST PROTECTIONIST POLICIES QUALITY OF TRANSPORT QUANTITATIVE RESTRICTIONS QUOTAS RAILROADS REDUCTION IN TARIFFS REFRIGERATION REGIONALISM REGIONALIZATION REGULATORY BARRIERS REGULATORY POLICIES ROAD ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE ROAD NETWORK ROAD TRANSPORT ROAD TRANSPORT SERVICES ROUTE RULES OF ORIGIN SAFEGUARD MEASURES SAFETY SHARE OF WORLD EXPORTS SIDE PAYMENTS TARIFF BARRIERS TARIFF BINDINGS TARIFF DATA TARIFF LINES TARIFF PREFERENCES TARIFF RATES TARIFF STRUCTURES TAX TAX RATES TECHNICAL BARRIERS TECHNICAL REGULATIONS TELECOMMUNICATIONS TERMS OF TRADE TRADE AGREEMENT TRADE BARRIERS TRADE CENTER TRADE COSTS TRADE DATA TRADE DEFLECTION TRADE EXPANSION TRADE FACILITATION TRADE FLOWS TRADE INDICATORS TRADE LOGISTICS TRADE MORE TRADE NEGOTIATIONS TRADE PERFORMANCE TRADE POLICIES TRADE POLICY TRADE POLICY INSTRUMENTS TRADE PREFERENCES TRADE REGIME TRADE REGIMES TRADE VALUES TRADE VOLUME TRADE VOLUMES TRAFFIC TRANSACTION COSTS TRANSACTIONS COSTS TRANSIT TRANSPARENCY TRANSPORT TRANSPORT COSTS TRANSPORT MARKET TRANSPORT PRICE TRANSPORT QUALITY TRANSPORT SERVICES TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION COSTS TRANSPORTATION SERVICES TRUE UNEMPLOYMENT VALUE OF APPAREL VALUE OF EXPORTS VARIABLE COSTS VOLUME OF TRADE WAGES WORLD MARKETS WORLD TRADE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION WTO
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Washington, DC: World Bank
Africa | Africa
2012-05-22T20:04:07Z | 2012-05-22T20:04:07Z | 2008-09

This paper reviews data and research on trade costs for Sub-Saharan African countries. It focuses on: border-related costs, transport costs, costs related to behind-the border issues, and the costs of compliance with rules of origin specific to preferential trade agreements. Trade costs are, on average, higher for African countries than for other developing countries. Using gravity-model estimates, the authors compute ad-valorem equivalents of improvements in trade indicators for a sample of African countries. The evidence suggests that the gains for African exporters from improving the trade logistics half-way to the level in South Africa is more important than a substantive cut in tariff barriers. As an example, improving logistics in Ethiopia half-way to the level in South Africa would be roughly equivalent to a 7.5 percent cut in tariffs faced by Ethiopian exporters.

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