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Working Paper

Somalia and the Horn of Africa

ABUSE ABUSES ACCORDS ADMINISTRATION AGREEMENT ALLIANCE ALLIANCES ARMED CONFLICT ARMED CONFLICTS ARMIES ARMY ASSETS AUTHORITARIANISM BANK BASIC SERVICES BATTLES BOMBINGS CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CITIZENS CIVIL SOCIETY CIVIL WAR CIVIL WARS COALITIONS COLD WAR COMPROMISE CONFIDENCE CONFLICT CONFLICT MANAGEMENT CONFLICT RESOLUTION CONSOLIDATION OF PEACE CONSTITUENCIES CORRUPTION CRIMES CRIMINAL CRIMINALITY CRISES CYCLE OF VIOLENCE DEFENSE DEMOBILIZATION DEMOCRACY DESERTIONS DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE DISPUTES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC ELITES ECONOMY ELECTIONS EMBASSIES EXPERT EXPROPRIATION EXTORTION FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FIGHTING FOOD AID FOREIGN AID FOREIGN ASSISTANCE FOREIGN SERVICE FREE PRESS GANGS GOVERNANCE GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS GOVERNMENT PROPERTY GOVERNMENT REVENUES GOVERNMENTS HUMAN RIGHTS HUMAN SECURITY HUMANITARIAN AID INDEPENDENCE INITIATIVE INITIATIVES INSURGENCY INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY INTERNATIONAL MEDIATION JUDICIARY LAWS LEADERSHIP LEGITIMACY LIBERATION LOCAL AUTHORITIES LOOTING MEDIA MILITARY MILITARY FORCES MILITARY OCCUPATION MILITARY OPERATIONS MILITIA MILITIAS MINISTER MINISTERS MINISTRIES NATION NATIONAL LEVEL NEGOTIATION OBSERVERS OPPOSITION PARTIES ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATIONS ORGANIZED CRIME PATRONAGE PEACE PEACE PROCESSES PEACEBUILDING PEACEKEEPERS PEACEKEEPING PEACEKEEPING FORCES PIRACY POLARIZATION POLICE POLICY POLITICAL CONFLICT POLITICAL ELITE POLITICAL ELITES POLITICAL LEADERS POLITICS PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY PROCUREMENT PROJECTS RADICALISM RECONCILIATION REFUGEE REFUGEES REGIONAL CONFLICT REGIONS REPRESENTATION REPRESENTATIVES REPRESSION REVOLUTION RISK MANAGEMENT RULE OF LAW SECURITY FORCES SERVICES SOCIAL CONTROL STATE STATE AUTHORITY STATE COLLAPSE STATE FAILURE STATE INSTITUTIONS STATES STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE STRATEGY TACTICS TERRORISM UNDERDEVELOPMENT UNIVERSITY VIOLENCE VIOLENT CONFLICT WAR WARFARE WORLD DEVELOPMENT
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Somalia
2017-06-27T16:30:21Z | 2017-06-27T16:30:21Z | 2011-04

The Horn of Africa (HOA) is one of the most underdeveloped regions on earth. It is also one of the most conflict-ridden, insecure regions in the world. While Africa as a whole has enjoyed a trend in recent years toward reduction and termination of many of its civil wars, the HOA is the exception to the rule. Indeed, the region's prolonged armed conflicts have spread, engulfing several neighboring states in warfare and partial state collapse. While aspects of the HOA case are obviously unique, and sensitivity to context and complexity must be privileged in both analysis of and policy toward the Horn, the region's crises are not so distinct that they preclude useful comparative analysis. This paper considers conflict dynamics across the entire Horn of Africa, but devotes special attention to the case of Somalia which, because of the depth, length, and significance of its crisis, is a source of particular international concern. Because Somalia's crisis has been so protracted and has gone through several very distinct phases, it provides an opportunity to compare conflict dynamics in a single country over time.

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