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Working Paper

Investing in Trees and Landscape Restoration in Africa : What, Where, and How

ACACIA ADB AFFORESTATION AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK AFRICAN FARMERS AGRIBUSINESS AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES AGRICULTURAL FIELDS AGRICULTURAL GROWTH AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT AGRICULTURAL LAND AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS AGRICULTURAL YIELDS AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION AGROCHEMICAL AGROFORESTRY ANIMALS ANNUAL CROPS AVERAGE YIELDS AVOCADOS BANANAS BIODIVERSITY BIOMASS ENERGY BUTTER CAPITA CONSUMPTION CARBON CARBON DIOXIDE CARBON SEQUESTRATION CASSAVA CASTOR BEANS CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY RESEARCH CEREAL CROP CERTIFICATION STANDARDS CGIAR CHEMICAL INPUTS CHOCOLATE CIFOR CINNAMON CITRUS FRUITS CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM CLIMATE CHANGE CLIMATIC ZONES COCOA COCOA BUTTER COCOA PRICES COCONUT COFFEE COFFEE EXPORTS COFFEE GROWERS COFFEE PRODUCTION COFFEE SYSTEMS COMMODITIES COMMODITY COMMUNITY FORESTRY CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK CONSERVATION FARMING CONSERVATION TILLAGE CONSULTATIVE GROUP ON INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CONSUMPTION PATTERNS CONTINUOUS CROPPING CROP CROP DIVERSIFICATION CROP PRODUCTION CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS CROP ROOT ZONE CROP SYSTEMS CROP YIELDS CROPPING CROPPING SYSTEMS CROPS CULTIVATION CULTIVATION OF TREES DECISION MAKING DEFORESTATION DEGRADED LANDS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES DIETARY FIBER ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY ECONOMIES OF SCALE ECOSYSTEMS EFFECTS OF DROUGHT ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS FALLOWING FAO FARM FARMER FARMERS FARMING FARMING SYSTEMS FARMLAND FARMS FEED FERTILIZER FOOD CROPS FOOD PRODUCTS FOOD SECURITY FOOD YIELDS FOREST FOREST GOVERNANCE FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST POLICY FOREST PRODUCTS FORESTRY RESEARCH FORESTS FOSSIL FUELS FRESH FRUIT FRUIT CROPS FRUITS FUELWOOD GARDENS GERMPLASM GRAIN GRAPES GREENHOUSE GAS GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS GROUND LEVEL GUAVAS GUM ARABIC GUMS HARVEST HARVESTING HONEY HONEY PRODUCTION HORTICULTURE HORTICULTURE DEVELOPMENT ICRAF IFAD INTERCROP SYSTEM INTERCROPPING INTERNATIONAL FUND FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT LAND DEGRADATION LAND MANAGEMENT LAND USE LANDSCAPE RESTORATION LEAF LITTER LEGUMINOUS TREES LEMONS LIMES LIVESTOCK LOGGING MAIZE MAIZE PRODUCTION MAIZE YIELDS MANGOES MILK MILLET MULCH MULCH COVER MULCHING NARS NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SYSTEM NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SYSTEMS NATURAL REGENERATION NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATURAL RESOURCES OIL OIL PALM OIL PRICES ORANGES OUTGROWER SCHEMES PAPAYA PAPAYAS PINEAPPLES PLANT BIODIVERSITY PLANT BIOMASS PLANTATIONS POLICY MAKERS POPULATION GROWTH POPULATION GROWTH RATES PRODUCE PRODUCER GROUPS PRODUCER ORGANIZATIONS PRODUCERS PRODUCT LINES PRODUCT QUALITY PRODUCTION COSTS PRUNING RA RANGELANDS RAW MATERIALS RENEWABLE RESOURCES REPLANTING RESINS ROOTS RURAL COMMUNITIES RURAL DEVELOPMENT RURAL INCOME SAVANNAS SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE SEED SEEDS SHADE TREES SHADE-GROWN SYSTEMS SMALL FARMERS SOIL CONSERVATION SOIL DEGRADATION SOIL DEPTH SOIL EROSION SOIL FERTILITY SOIL HEALTH SOIL MOISTURE SOIL NITROGEN SOILS SORGHUM SPACING SPATIAL PATTERNS STREAMS SUGAR SUGAR CONSUMPTION SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT TEA THE CONSULTATIVE GROUP TIMBER TIMBER TREE TIMBER TREES TOBACCO TRANSACTION COSTS TREE CROPS TREE DENSITY TREE PLANTING TREE SPECIES TREE SYSTEMS TREES TREES IN FARMING SYSTEMS TROPICAL FRUITS UNCTAD UNDP UNEP UNITED NATIONS UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME URBANIZATION VEGETABLES VEGETATION VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION WATER STORAGE WATERSHED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT WEED GROWTH WIND EROSION
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa
2017-06-05T14:05:27Z | 2017-06-05T14:05:27Z | 2011-11

Reforestation measures for degraded lands, strategies for the sustainable management of forest resources, and agroforestry practices that incorporate trees into farming systems are increasingly demonstrating their promise for producing commercialized tree products. Although the level of investment so far has remained modest, the challenge is to find ways to scale up promising investments in a way that will have a clear impact at the landscape level. These types of investments can help achieve the triple wins of climate-smart agriculture: increased incomes and yields, climate change adaptation and greenhouse gas mitigation.Market trends are promising for a wide range of tree-based technologies, including tropical fruits, cashews, honey, timber and wood products, lipids, gums and resins, tree crops, and agroforestry systems. In many cases, African entrepreneurs, farmers, civil society, and governments have responded dynamically to the widespread challenge of land degradation. The continent is dotted with landscapes where production of trees on farms and in managed forests has grown dramatically to meet market and subsistence needs; sustainable agricultural practices and revegetation have restored soils and watersheds; and key conservation areas are being protected. However, this is not happening at the scale required by societal needs in Africa. In part, this is due to a lack of strategic cooperation and coordination between private sector investors and land managers (who are focused on realizing profitable opportunities and meeting their own needs) and public and civil society actors (who are focused on restoring forest cover and ecosystem services). Such coordination is only possible when the biophysical potential for landscape restoration, private sector investment opportunity and incentives, and societal demand for multiple benefits converge. Much can be learned from examples of large-scale landscape restoration in Ethiopia, Kenya, Niger, Tanzania, and Zambia, and the variable roles of the private sector, farmers, government, and civil society in supporting and undertaking investment.

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