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Sub-Saharan Africa Refinery Study

AIR AIR EMISSION AIR EMISSIONS AIR POLLUTANT AIR POLLUTANTS AIR POLLUTION AIR QUALITY AIR QUALITY MODELING AIR QUALITY RESULTING ALKYLATION ALKYLATION UNITS AMBIENT AIR AMBIENT AIR CONCENTRATIONS AMBIENT AIR QUALITY APPROACH AROMATICS ASTHMA ATTACKS AVAILABILITY BENZENE BENZENE CONTENT BENZENE EMISSIONS BENZENE EXPOSURE BUSES CARBON CARBON MONOXIDE CARS CATALYTIC CONVERTERS CATALYTIC REDUCTION CETANE INDEX CHEMICALS CHRONIC BRONCHITIS CLEAN AIR CLEAN AIR INITIATIVE CLEAN FUEL CLEAN FUELS CLEAN TRANSPORTATION CLEANER FUELS CLIMATE CO CO2 COMMERCIAL ENERGY COMMERCIAL TRUCKS CRUDE DISTILLATION CRUDE OIL DEMAND FOR PETROLEUM PRODUCTS DESULFURIZATION DESULFURIZATION CAPACITY DIESEL DIESEL VEHICLES DISTILLATION DOMESTIC EMISSIONS DRIVERS DUST ELASTICITIES ELASTICITY EMISSION EMISSION CONTROL EMISSION DATA EMISSION FACTORS EMISSIONS DATA EMISSIONS FACTORS EMISSIONS INVENTORIES EMISSIONS RESULTS ENERGY DEMAND ENERGY EFFICIENCY ENERGY USE ENGINES ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY FEEDSTOCKS FUEL FUEL IMPROVEMENTS FUEL OIL FUEL PRICES FUEL PRODUCTS FUEL QUALITY FUEL SPECIFICATIONS FUEL STANDARDS FUEL SULFUR FUEL SUPPLY FUEL USE FUELS GAS GAS FLARING GAS FLARING REDUCTION GASOLINE GASOLINE DESULFURIZATION GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT HEALTH EFFECTS HOUSEHOLD ENERGY HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES HYDROCRACKING HYDROGEN HYDROGEN PLANT IMPORTS OF ETHANOL INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION INFRASTRUCTURE CAPACITY INJURIES INJURY INSPECTION INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS ISOMERIZATION LIFE EXPECTANCY LNG LUBRICITY MEDICAL TREATMENT METEOROLOGY MINERAL RESOURCES MORTALITY MOTOR VEHICLES MOTORCYCLE EMISSIONS MOTORCYCLE TRAVEL MOTORCYCLE USE MOTORCYCLES MTBE NITRATE NITROGEN NITROGEN DIOXIDE NITROGEN OXIDES NO2 NOX O3 OIL COMPANIES OIL PRICE OIL PRODUCERS OILS OXIDATION CATALYST OZONE PARTICULATE PARTICULATE MATTER PARTICULATES PERSONAL VEHICLES PETROLEUM PETROLEUM DEMAND PETROLEUM INDUSTRY PETROLEUM PRODUCT SUPPLY PETROLEUM PRODUCTS PM10 POLLUTANT EMISSION POLLUTANT EMISSIONS POLLUTANT REDUCTIONS POLLUTION ABATEMENT POLLUTION CONTROL POLLUTION LEVELS POPULATION DENSITY POWER PUBLIC HEALTH QUALITY OF TRANSPORTATION QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS REDUCTION IN EMISSIONS REFINERY REFINERY CAPACITY REFINERY CLOSURES REFINERY FUEL REFINERY OPERATIONS RESIDUAL FUEL RESIDUAL FUEL OIL ROAD ROADS SO2 SULFATE SULFUR SULFUR CONTENT SULFUR DIOXIDE SUPPLY COSTS TOTAL EMISSIONS TRAFFIC TRAFFIC CONGESTION TRANSPARENCY TRANSPORT TRANSPORT AUTHORITY TRANSPORT FUELS TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS TYPES OF VEHICLES UNEP URBAN AIR QUALITY URBAN AREAS URBAN TRANSPORT VAPOR PRESSURE VEHICLE VEHICLE EMISSION VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES VEHICLE EMISSIONS VEHICLE FLEET VEHICLE FLEETS VEHICLE KILOMETERS VEHICLE TYPES VEHICLE USE VEHICLES VOC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WEALTH WIND WIND SPEED
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa
2014-05-13T20:57:52Z | 2014-05-13T20:57:52Z | 2009-07

Over the past two decades, the growing awareness of the role that emissions play in human health and environmental degradation had led to a general movement in many parts of the world to control emissions to reduce the impacts. This movement has mainly taken two forms: 1) the development and subsequent required use of control devices for stationary sources and vehicle sources and, 2) changes in the specifications of transportation fuels to reduce emissions of the major pollutants. These trends originated in the industrialized countries and are now spreading, at different rates, throughout the world. As in other world regions, the first improvement in the specifications of transportation fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa was the elimination of lead. The phase out of lead is now complete and the World Bank and its partners are looking at the next step the reduction of sulfur in transportation fuels. The growing complexity of the vehicle emission control technologies for both personal vehicles and commercial trucks and the concomitant need for clean fuels.In addition to the growing awareness of the human health and environmental impact of vehicle source emissions, have placed increasing requirements on refineries. Sulfur is not an additive but a natural part of crude oil. Its removal processes presents both technological and economic challenges to refiners. However, by coming later than Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) regions to ultra-low sulfur fuels, SSA refineries are in a position to benefit from the operating experience and process improvements obtained elsewhere in the refining industry.

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