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Special Economic Zones in Africa : Comparing Performance and Learning from Global Experience

ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES ADVANCED ECONOMIES AGRICULTURE ARBITRAGE BENCHMARK BENCHMARKING BINDING CONSTRAINTS BOND BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT BUSINESS PROCESS OUTSOURCING CAPACITY BUILDING CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT CATALYTIC IMPACT CATALYTIC ROLE CITIES COLLABORATION COMMODITIES COMMON MARKET COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT COMPETITIVENESS CONNECTIVITY CONSUMERS COPYRIGHT CLEARANCE COPYRIGHT CLEARANCE CENTER CORPORATE TAX COUNTRY TO COUNTRY CUSTOMS UNION DATA COLLECTION DECENTRALIZATION DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT POLICIES DISPLACEMENT DOMESTIC ECONOMIES DOMESTIC ECONOMY DOMESTIC INVESTORS DOMESTIC MARKET DOMESTIC MARKETS ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ECONOMIC BENEFITS ECONOMIC CHANGE ECONOMIC COOPERATION ECONOMIC CRISIS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC IMPACT ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION ECONOMIC OUTCOMES ECONOMIC REFORM ECONOMIC REFORMS ECONOMIC RESEARCH ECONOMIC STRATEGIES ECONOMIC VALUE ECONOMICS ECONOMIES OF SCALE ECONOMISTS EMERGING ECONOMIES ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS ENVIRONMENTS EPZ EXPORT GROWTH EXPORT MARKETS EXPORT PROCESSING ZONE EXPORT PROCESSING ZONES EXPORTS EXTERNAL TRADE FINANCE CORPORATION FINANCIAL SUPPORT FISHING FOREIGN CAPITAL FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT FOREIGN EXCHANGE FOREIGN INVESTMENT FOREIGN INVESTORS FOREIGN OWNERSHIP FOREIGN TRADE FOREIGN VALUE FREE TRADE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT FUTURE RESEARCH GDP GENERALIZED SYSTEM OF PREFERENCES GLOBAL ECONOMY GLOBAL INVESTORS GLOBAL MARKETS GLOBAL STANDARDS GLOBALIZATION GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT GUARANTEE OF SUCCESS HUMAN CAPITAL INCOME INCOMES INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT INDUSTRIALIZATION INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION INTERNATIONAL FINANCE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION INTERNATIONAL TRADE INVESTMENT CLIMATE INVESTMENT POLICIES INVESTMENT POLICY INVESTORS CONFIDENCE JOB CREATION JOINT VENTURE KNOWLEDGE SHARING LABOR COSTS LABOR FORCE LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKET RIGIDITIES LABOR MARKETS LABOR PRODUCTIVITY LABOR STANDARDS LABOUR LEARNING LEGAL FRAMEWORK LIBERALIZATION LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES LOW-INCOME COUNTRY LOW-INCOME ECONOMIES MARKET ACCESS MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRY MINIMUM WAGE MONOPOLIES MONOPOLY MULTIPLIERS NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NATIONAL ECONOMY NATURAL RESOURCE NEGATIVE EXTERNALITIES OIL OUTPUT OUTSOURCING OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE POLICY DECISIONS POLICY ENVIRONMENT POLICY INSTRUMENTS POLICY MAKERS POLITICAL ECONOMY POWER OUTAGES PPPS PRESENT VALUE PRIVATE INVESTMENT PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PRIVATIZATION PRODUCTION PROCESS PRODUCTION PROCESSES PROGRAMS PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS RAPID GROWTH REAL ESTATE REGIONAL INTEGRATION REGIONAL TRADE REGULATORY AGENCY REGULATORY AUTHORITIES REGULATORY AUTHORITY REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT REGULATORY FRAMEWORK REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS REGULATORY REGIME REGULATORY REGIMES REMOTE REGION RESEARCH AGENDA SAFETY SKILLED WORKERS SOCIAL VALUES STREAMS STRUCTURAL CHANGE SUPPLIERS SUSTAINABLE GROWTH TAXATION TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TECHNICAL NEEDS TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERS TELECOMMUNICATIONS TRADE POLICY TRADE UNIONS TRADES TRADING ACTIVITIES TRADING PLATFORM TRANSACTION COSTS TRANSPARENCY UNEMPLOYMENT UNSKILLED LABOR VALUE ADDED WAGES WEALTH WORKING CONDITIONS WORLD TRADE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION WTO
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World Bank
Africa
2012-03-19T09:02:50Z | 2012-03-19T09:02:50Z | 2011-02-15

Economic zones have grown rapidly in the past 20 years. In 1986, the International Labor Organization's (ILO's) database reported 176 zones in 47 countries; by 2006, it reported 3,500 zones in 130 countries. This huge growth occurred despite many zones having failed to meet their objectives; however, many others are contributing significantly to growth in foreign direct investment (FDI), exports, and employment, as well as playing a catalytic role in integration into global trade and structural transformation, including industrialization and upgrading. This study aims to address some of these questions and deliver an analysis that is both data-driven and policy-focused. The objective of the study is to explore the experience of zone programs, with a particular focus on Sub-Saharan Africa, to understand the factors that contribute to static and dynamic outcomes. It aims to provide input to the question of whether and how zones can make a significant contribution to job creation, diversification, and sustainable growth in African and other low-income countries.

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