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Working Paper

Land Redistribution in South Africa : A Critical Review

AGENTS AGRARIAN ECONOMY AGRARIAN REFORM AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AGRICULTURAL FINANCE AGRICULTURAL LAND AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AGRICULTURAL SECTOR AGRICULTURAL SUPPORT AGRICULTURE COLLECTIVE FARMING COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE COMMERCIAL BANKS COMMERCIAL FARMERS COMMERCIAL FARMS COMMUNAL AREAS COMMUNAL LAND COMMUNAL LANDS COMMUNAL TENURE CROP VARIETIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMICS EQUIPMENT EQUITABLE ACCESS EQUITY SHARES EVICTIONS EXTENSION FARM EMPLOYMENT FARM PLANNING FARM WORKERS FARMERS FARMING AREAS FARMLAND FARMS FEMALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS FOOD SECURITY GENDER HOUSEHOLD HEADS HOUSEHOLD INCOME HOUSEHOLDS HOUSING HUMAN RIGHTS ILLITERACY IMPROVED LAND INCOME INCOMES INEQUALITY LAND ACQUISITION LAND ADMINISTRATION LAND CLAIMS LAND EXPROPRIATION LAND MANAGEMENT LAND NATIONALIZATION LAND OWNERS LAND OWNERSHIP LAND PRICES LAND REDISTRIBUTION LAND REFORM LAND REFORM BENEFICIARIES LAND RIGHTS LAND TENURE LAND TENURE REFORM LAND TRANSFERS LAND USE LANDLESS HOUSEHOLDS LANDLESS PEOPLE LANDOWNERS LEASEHOLD LEASES LEASING LIVELIHOODS LIVESTOCK MALNUTRITION MARKETING NGOS NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS POINTS POOR POOR PAY POOR PEOPLE POST-SETTLEMENT SUPPORT POVERTY LINE POVERTY REDUCTION PRIVATE SECTOR PROPERTY RIGHTS RURAL RURAL AREAS RURAL BUSINESS RURAL COMMUNITIES RURAL DEVELOPMENT RURAL ECONOMY RURAL PEOPLE RURAL POVERTY RURAL SECTOR RURAL SETTINGS SMALL FARMS SMALLHOLDER FARMERS TARGETING TENANT FARMERS TENANTS UNEMPLOYMENT URBAN LAND URBANIZATION VETERINARY SERVICES WAR
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | South Africa
2017-06-14T22:24:05Z | 2017-06-14T22:24:05Z | 2012-05-28

This paper provides an overview of land reform in South Africa from 1994 to 2011, with the focus on the land redistribution. The government policies and associated implementation since 1994 have not generated expected social and economic results for a number of reasons. Even where land has been transferred, it appears to have had minimal impact on the livelihoods of beneficiaries, largely because of inappropriate project design, a lack of necessary support services and shortages of working capital, leading to widespread underutilization of land. There is no evidence to suggest that land reform has led to improvements in agricultural efficiency, income, employment or economic growth. Therefore, the current approach, based on acquisition of land through the open market, minimal support to new farmers, and bureaucratic imposition of production models loosely based on existing commercial operators, is unlikely to transform the rural economy and lift people out of poverty. The paper argues that there are two important missing aspects in the land reform program. First, there is an absence of any viable small-farmer path to development, which could enable the millions of households residing in the communal areas and on commercial farms to expand their own production and accumulate wealth and resources in an incremental manner. Making this happen would require radical restructuring of existing farm units to create family-size farms, more realistic farm planning, appropriate support from a much-reformed state agricultural service, and a much greater role for beneficiaries in the design and implementation of their own projects. Second, what is clearly missing from the governance tradition is the sustained focus on implementation, resource mobilization, and timely policy adjustment. Much more will be required for land reform program to contribute significantly to economic growth and to the redistribution of wealth and opportunities to the majority of the population.

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