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Is Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa Different?

ACCESS TO CAPITAL MARKETS ADULT POPULATION AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT AGRICULTURAL SHOCK AGRICULTURAL SHOCKS AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES AGRICULTURE AUCTIONS BENCHMARKING BILATERAL TRADE BIRTH CONTROL BIRTH RATES BUSINESSES CAPABILITY CAPITAL ACCUMULATION CAPITAL ALLOCATIONS CAPITAL INVESTMENT CAPITAL MARKET CAPITAL MARKETS CASH SETTLEMENT CD CD-ROM CENSUSES CHANGE IN POPULATION CITIZENS CITY POPULATION CIVIL WAR CLOSED ECONOMY COLLATERAL COMMODITIES COMMODITY COMMODITY EXPORTS COMMODITY PRICE COMMODITY PRICES CONSUMERS CPI CUSTOMS CUSTOMS UNION DATA DEFINITION DEATH RATES DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPING COUNTRY DEVELOPMENT POLICY DISCOUNT RATE DIVIDEND ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC HISTORY ECONOMIC RESEARCH EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ELASTICITY ELDERLY ENTERPRISE SURVEYS EQUIPMENT EXCHANGE RATE EXCHANGE RATES EXTERNAL TRADE EXTERNALITIES FERTILITY FERTILITY RATES FINANCIAL SUPPORT FIXED COSTS FIXED PRICES FUNCTIONAL FORMS GDP GDP PER CAPITA GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROWTH MODELS GROWTH RATES HEALTH FACILITIES HUMAN CAPITAL IMMIGRANT IMMIGRATION INCOME INCOME EFFECT INCOME LEVELS INCOMES INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT INDUSTRIALIZATION INSTITUTION INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS INTERNATIONAL TRADE LABOR COSTS LABOR FORCE LABOR MARKET LABOR PRODUCTIVITY LAND OWNERSHIP LAND TENURE LEGAL SYSTEMS LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT MACROECONOMICS MANUFACTURING MARGINAL PRODUCT MARKET PRICES MARKETING METALS MIGRANT MIGRANTS MISSING VALUES NATIONAL INCOME NATIONAL POPULATION NATURAL GAS NATURAL RESOURCE NATURAL RESOURCES NETWORKS OIL OPEN ACCESS OPEN ECONOMY OUTPUT OVERVALUATION OWNERSHIP OF LAND OWNERSHIP STRUCTURES PC POLICY DISCUSSIONS POLICY RESEARCH POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER POLITICAL ECONOMY POLITICAL REGIME POLITICAL SUPPORT POPULATION ESTIMATES POPULATION GROWTH POPULATION GROWTH RATE PRICE CHANGES PRICE SERIES PRIMARY SCHOOL PROCUREMENT PRODUCT CATEGORIES PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH PROGRESS PROPERTY RIGHTS PUBLIC EDUCATION PUBLIC GOODS PURCHASING POWER PURCHASING POWER PARITY QUALITY OF HEALTH CARE RAPID POPULATION GROWTH RATE OF GROWTH REAL GDP REAL INCOME RENT SEEKING RESPECT RESULT RESULTS RETAIL SERVICES ROLE OF INSTITUTIONS RURAL AREAS RURAL POPULATIONS RURAL PRODUCTION RURAL RESIDENTS SAVINGS SCALE EFFECTS SECONDARY SCHOOLING SEX SKILL LEVEL SMALL COUNTRY STRUCTURAL CHANGE TAXATION TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS TELECOMMUNICATIONS TERMS OF TRADE TIME PERIOD TIME PERIODS TRADE DATABASE UNEMPLOYMENT URBAN AREAS URBAN BIAS URBAN DEVELOPMENT URBAN MIGRATION URBAN POPULATION URBANIZATION USERS UTILITY FUNCTION VALUE ADDED WAGES WAR WEB WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS WORLD ECONOMY WORLD TRADE
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World Bank, Washington, DC
Africa | Sub-Saharan Africa
2013-09-26T14:16:04Z | 2013-09-26T14:16:04Z | 2013-06

In the past dozen years, a literature has developed arguing that urbanization has unfolded differently in post-independence Sub-Saharan Africa than in the rest of the developing world, with implications for African economic growth overall. While African countries are more urbanized than other countries at comparable levels of income, it is well-recognized that total and sector gross domestic product data are of very low quality, especially in Africa. When instead viewed from the perspective of effective technology, as suggested in endogenous growth frameworks (and as proxied by educational attainment), the African urbanization experience overall matches global patterns. There are differences, however, at the sector level. Agricultural trade effects that improve farm prices deter African urbanization, while they promote urbanization elsewhere. Potential reasons include differences in land ownership institutions and the likelihood of agricultural surpluses being invested in urban production. Positive shocks to modern manufacturing spur urbanization in the rest of the developing world, but effects are dependent on the level of development. Thus many countries in Africa, with their lower level of development, do not respond to these shocks. Finally, historical indicators of the potential for good institutions promote urbanization both inside and outside Africa.

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