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Out-of-School Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa : A Policy Perspective

ACADEMIC STANDARDS ACCESS TO SCHOOLING ADOLESCENTS ADULT EMPLOYMENT ADULT LITERACY ADULTS ADVOCACY AGE COHORT AGE GROUPS ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION BASIC EDUCATION BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE CHILD DEVELOPMENT CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS CIVIC PARTICIPATION COGNITIVE SKILLS COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION COMPULSORY EDUCATION CURRICULA DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DOMESTIC VIOLENCE DRINKING WATER DROPOUT PATTERNS DROPOUT PROBLEM DROPOUT RATE DROPOUT RATES DROPOUT TRENDS DROPOUTS EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT EARLY INTERVENTION EARLY MARRIAGE EARLY MARRIAGE FOR GIRLS ECONOMIC GROWTH ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES EDUCATED ADULTS EDUCATION DECISIONS EDUCATION EXPENDITURE EDUCATION FOR YOUTH EDUCATION INITIATIVES EDUCATION OUTCOMES EDUCATION POLICIES EDUCATION POLICY EDUCATION PROGRAMS EDUCATION SECTOR EDUCATION SYSTEM EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES EDUCATIONAL QUALITY EFFECTS OF EDUCATION ENROLLMENT INCREASES ENROLLMENT LEVELS EXAMS EXISTING RESOURCES FAMILIES FAMILY ATTITUDES FEMALE YOUTH FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM FORMAL SCHOOLING FREE EDUCATION GENDER DIFFERENTIALS GENDER DISPARITIES GIRLS GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROSS ENROLLMENT GROSS ENROLLMENT RATE GROSS ENROLLMENT RATES HEALTH CARE HEALTHY CHILDREN HIGH DROPOUT HIGH POPULATION GROWTH HIGH POPULATION GROWTH RATES HIGH SCHOOL HIGHER EDUCATION HOUSEHOLD INCOME HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION INFORMAL EDUCATION INTERVENTIONS LABOR FORCE LABOR MARKET LABOR MARKETS LEADERSHIP LEARNING LEARNING OUTCOMES LEGAL STATUS LEVEL OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS LIFE-SKILLS LIVING STANDARDS LOCAL GOVERNMENTS LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES MARRIED WOMEN NATIONAL GOVERNMENT NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS OLD GIRLS OLDER GIRLS ORPHANS PARENT EDUCATION PARENTAL ATTITUDES PARENTAL EDUCATION PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE POLICY DIALOGUE POLICY DISCUSSIONS POLICY MAKERS POPULATION GROWTH POPULATION GROWTH RATE POST-PRIMARY EDUCATION PREGNANCY PRIMARY CYCLE PRIMARY EDUCATION PRIMARY LEVEL PRIMARY SCHOOL PRIMARY SCHOOLING PRIMARY SCHOOLS PRIVATE EDUCATION PRIVATE SCHOOL PROGRESS PROSTITUTION PUBLIC EDUCATION PUBLIC EXPENDITURE PUBLIC POLICY PUSH FACTORS QUALITY OF EDUCATION QUALITY OF EDUCATION SYSTEMS QUALITY OF LIFE QUALITY SCHOOLS RELIGIOUS BELIEFS REPEATERS REPETITION RATES RESOURCE ALLOCATION RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS RETURN TO EDUCATION RISKY BEHAVIOR RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIOR RURAL AREAS RURAL COMMUNITIES RURAL RESIDENCE RURAL YOUTH SCHOOL ATTENDANCE SCHOOL COMPLETION SCHOOL DISCIPLINE SCHOOL DROPOUTS SCHOOL ENROLLMENT SCHOOL ENTRY SCHOOL FACILITIES SCHOOL FEES SCHOOL GIRLS SCHOOL GRADUATES SCHOOL INFRASTRUCTURE SCHOOL MANAGEMENT SCHOOL QUALITY SCHOOL SYSTEM SCHOOL SYSTEMS SCHOOL TUITION SCHOOL YOUTH SCHOOLING SCHOOL­AGE SCHOOL­AGE POPULATION SECONDARY EDUCATION SECONDARY SCHOOL SECONDARY SCHOOLING SECONDARY SCHOOLS SKILLS DEVELOPMENT SKILLS TRAINING SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL NORMS SOCIAL PROBLEMS SOCIAL SCIENCES SOCIAL WELFARE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT STUDENT ASSESSMENT SUBSIDIES TO EDUCATION TEACHER TEACHER TRAINING TEACHERS TEACHING TEACHING FORCE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TECHNICAL SKILLS TEEN TERTIARY EDUCATION TRAINING COURSES TRAINING PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION UNEMPLOYMENT UNMARRIED GIRLS UNMARRIED YOUNG WOMEN URBAN AREAS URBAN POVERTY URBAN YOUTH VOCATIONAL TRAINING WAR WORKFORCE YOUNG AGES YOUNG CHILDREN YOUNG GIRLS YOUNG MEN YOUNG PEOPLE YOUNG WOMAN YOUNG WOMEN YOUNGER GIRLS YOUTH YOUTH DEVELOPMENT YOUTH EMPLOYMENT YOUTH POPULATION
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Washington, DC: World Bank
Africa | Sub-Saharan Africa
2015-03-09T16:40:26Z | 2015-03-09T16:40:26Z | 2015-02-27

The economic and social prospects are daunting for the 89 million out-of-school youth who comprise nearly half of all youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Within the next decade, when this cohort becomes the core of the labor market, an estimated 40 million more youth will drop out, and will face an uncertain future with limited work and life skills. Furthermore, out-of-school youth often are policy orphans, positioned between sectors with little data, low implementation capacity, lack of interest in long-term sustainability of programs, insufficient funds, and little coordination across the different government agencies. This report provides a diagnostic analysis of the state of out-of-school youth in Sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on the 12- to 24-year-old cohort. This report also examines the decision path youth take as they progress through the education system and the factors that explain youth's school and work choices. It finds that individual and household characteristics, social norms, and characteristics of the school system all matter in understanding why youth drop out and remain out of school. In particular, six key factors characterize out-of-school youth: (i) most out-of-school youth drop out before secondary school; (ii) early marriage for female youth and (iii) rural residence increase the likelihood of being out of school; (iv) parental education level and (v) the number of working adults are important household factors; and (vi) lack of school access and low educational quality are binding supply-side constraints. Policy discussions on out-of-school youth are framed by these six key factors along with three entry points for intervention: retention, remediation, and integration. This report also reviews policies and programs in place for out-of-school youth across the continent. Ultimately, this report aims to inform public discussion, policy formulation, and development practitioners' actions working with youth in Sub-Saharan Africa.

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