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Climate Change and Migration : Evidence from the Middle East and North Africa

AFFECTED COMMUNITIES AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AIR AIR POLLUTION ALLOCATION BASIC NEEDS BENEFITS OF MIGRATION CLIMATE CLIMATE CHANGE CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT CLIMATE EVENTS CLIMATE FACTORS CLIMATE IMPACTS CLIMATE PATTERNS CLIMATE RISKS CLIMATE VARIABLES CLIMATE-RELATED DISASTERS CLIMATIC CHANGE CLIMATIC CHANGES CLIMATIC CONDITIONS CLIMATIC FACTORS CLIMATIC VARIABLES COLORS CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATION COPE WITH CLIMATE CHANGE COST OF CLIMATE CHANGE COST-BENEFIT COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS CROP FAILURE DEFORESTATION DEVELOPING COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS DEVELOPMENT POLICY DISEASES DRINKING WATER DROUGHT ECONOMIC ACTIVITY ECONOMIC CONDITIONS ECONOMIC IMPACTS ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES EDUCATION OF CHILDREN EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ELECTRICITY EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS EXCESSIVE RAIN EXTREME TEMPERATURES EXTREME WEATHER EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS FAMILY MEMBERS FERTILIZERS FLOOD FLOODING FLOODS FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS GOVERNMENT RESPONSE HEALTH CARE HEALTH FACILITIES HEALTH RISKS HIGH TEMPERATURES HOUSEHOLD LEVEL HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IMMIGRANTS IMMUNIZATION IMPACT OF CLIMATE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT OF WEATHER IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS OF WEATHER INADEQUATE RAINFALL INCOME INTERNAL MIGRATION INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IPCC ISSUES OF POVERTY JOB OPPORTUNITIES JOB TRAINING JOBS KIDS LABOR MARKET LAKES LARGE CITIES LEGAL STATUS LIVING CONDITIONS LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES LOWER PRICES MIGRANT MIGRANTS MIGRATION MIGRATION FLOWS MIGRATION POLICY MIGRATION STATISTICS MINORITY MOVEMENTS OF PEOPLE NATURAL DISASTERS NATURAL RESOURCES NEGATIVE IMPACT NEGATIVE IMPACTS NUMBER OF PEOPLE PER CAPITA INCOME PESTICIDES PLACE OF RESIDENCE POLICY DEVELOPMENT POLICY DISCUSSIONS POLICY IMPLICATIONS POLICY MAKERS POLICY RESPONSE POLITICAL LEADERSHIP POPULATION DATA POPULATION GROUPS POTENTIAL MIGRANTS PRECIPITATION PROVISION OF EDUCATION PUBLIC SPENDING PULL FACTORS PUSH FACTOR PUSH FACTORS RAIN RAINFALL RAINFALL REDUCTION RAINY SEASON REMITTANCE REMITTANCES RURAL AREAS RURAL COMMUNITIES RURAL POPULATIONS RURAL RESIDENTS SAFETY NET SAFETY NETS SCHOOL ENROLMENT SEA LEVEL SEASONAL TEMPERATURE SOCIAL NORMS SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS SOIL DEGRADATION SOIL EROSION STORMS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE VARIABILITY TEMPERATURES TEMPORARY MIGRATION TOLERANCE TRANSPORTATION UNCERTAINTIES UNEMPLOYMENT UNEMPLOYMENT LEVELS URBAN AREAS URBAN COMMUNITIES URBAN DEVELOPMENT URBAN DWELLERS URBAN POPULATION URBANIZATION VULNERABILITY WATER DISTRIBUTION WATER SCARCITY WEATHER CONDITIONS WEATHER DATA WEATHER EVENT WEATHER PATTERNS WEATHER SHOCK WEATHER SHOCKS WEATHER STATION WEATHER STATION DATA WEATHER VARIABLES WOMAN YOUNG WOMEN
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Washington, DC: World Bank
Middle East and North Africa | North Africa | Middle East | Algeria | Egypt, Arab Republic of | Morocco | Syrian Arab Republic | Yemen, Republic of
Wodon, Quentin | Liverani, Andrea | Joseph, George | Bougnoux, Nathalie
2014-07-21T14:26:57Z | 2014-07-21T14:26:57Z | 2014-07-15

Climate change is a major source of concern in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and migration is often understood as one of several strategies used by households to respond to changes in climate and environmental conditions, including extreme weather events. This study focuses on the link between climate change and migration. Most micro-level studies measure climate change either by the incidences of extreme weather events or by variation in temperature or rainfall. A few studies have found that formal and informal institutions as well as policies also affect migration. Institutions that make government more responsive to households (for example through public spending) discourage both international and domestic migration in the aftermath of extreme weather events. Migration is often an option of last resort after vulnerable rural populations attempting to cope with new and challenging circumstances have exhausted other options such as eating less, selling assets, or removing children from school. This study is based in large part on new data collected in 2011 in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Syria, and the Republic of Yemen. The surveys were administered by in-country partners to a randomly selected set of 800 households per country. It is also important to emphasize that neither the household survey results nor the findings from the qualitative focus groups are meant to be representative of the five countries in which the work was carried, since only a few areas were surveyed in each country. This report is organized as follows: section one gives synthesis. Section two discusses household perceptions about climate change and extreme weather events. Section three focuses on migration as a coping mechanisms and income diversification strategy. Section four examines other coping and adaptation strategies. Section five discusses perceptions about government and community programs.

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